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So long ago as the year 1873 we were induced to commence a series 
of short papers on VINES AND VINE CULTURE for the pages of TJie 
Florist and Pomologist. Although appearing at distant and irregular 
intervals, these papers have, in the course of time, extended to some 
length ; and inasmuch as they embrace certain matters pertaining to 
Grape-growing that had not before been introduced into any work 
specially devoted to the Vine, they have met with a considerable 
amount of notice and approval. 

Thus encouraged, and having been repeatedly urged to have the 
whole re-published in such a form as to make it a comprehensive 
Guide or Text Book on Vine culture^-primarily for the use of amateurs 
and young gardeners we have at length consented to do .so, in the 
hope that, despite its many imperfections and omissions, it may be 
the means of affording some useful aid to those who are interested in 
the growth of Grapes. 

VINES AND VINE CULTURE, as it is now submitted to the public, 
much exceeds in extent and variety the papers originally published in 
The Florist and Pomologist, many new chapters having been added, 
together with numerous plates and other illustrations. The portraits 
of the varieties of Grapes have been photographed from Nature 
directly on to the wood block by Mr. A E. Smith, and engraved with 
much skill by Mr. Worthington G. Smith. 

The Vine has not hitherto been without its records, for many 
treatises, from the pens of the most experienced cultivators of the day, 
have from time to time appeared. These are entitled to the very 
greatest respect, as being records of successful practice in the manage- 
ment of the Vine, and the production of its fruit. Indeed, scarcely 
any gardening subject has been more ably or more copiously dealt 
with. It has been our endeavour to go a little beyond our prede- 
cessors in the same walk, and to treat of Vines and Grapes in all their 
various phases and characters ; in a word, to provide a work on Vines 
that may at times prove useful to the skilled practitioner, as well as 
to the inexperienced amateur or the student. 

In our official capacity as Superintendent of the Royal Horticultural 
Society's Garden establishments, we have enjoyed special facilities 
for becoming acquainted with, and ascertaining the characters and 


peculiarities of, the different varieties of Grapes in cultivation, many 
hundreds of sorts having come under our personal care and observation. 
With the exception of six of the American kinds which, although 
under cultivation, have not yet fruited, the descriptions given of the 
several varieties are all derived from our own observations, verified in 
some cases by the excellent descriptions given in The Fruit Manual, 
the author of which we have to thank for many lessons pomological. 

For the examples of Grapes figured, and which have been selected 
as fair average samples, we are indebted to many kind friends, to 
whom w now tender our warmest acknowledgments ; without their 
help in so kindly supplying us with typical examples of their splendid 
cultures, our task would have been much more difficult. 

The present treatise being based on the papers published and 
illustrated in The Florist and Pomologist, our thanks are especially due 
to the Editor of that excellent periodical for the care which has been 
so ungrudgingly expended on their original publication. It is, more- 
over, our pleasing duty to record our indebtedness to the Editors of 
The Gardeners' Chronicle and The Garden, for the use of various 
illustrations that would otherwise have been difficult to obtain. We 
have also specially to thank Mr. Harrison Weir, Mr. James Boyd. Mr. 
Jones of the Royal Gardens, Mr. T. F. Rivers, Mr. Woodbridge of 
Syon House, Mr. Roberts of Gunnersbury, Mr. W. Thomson, and 
others, for valuable information which they have supplied, and for so 
readily replying to the numerous enquiries addressed to them. 

To Mr. Thomas Moore, our thanks are due in an especial degree, 
and are here gratefully tendered, for much valuable advice and 
assistance which have been rendered by him while the revised work 
has been passing through the press, and which have more than com- 
pensated for our own inexperience in these matters. 

With these feelings of gratefulness for help freely given, we now 
offer to the Horticultural world the results of our experience amongst 
Grapes, in the hope that in this way we may be making ourselves 
useful in our day and generation, and lending a willing hand to help 
forward the development of practical Horticulture. 

A. F. B. 

Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, 
Cliisicick, February, 1883. 


IT is a little more than four years since we ventured to offer to the 
gardening world, in a completed form, our experiences amongst Vines 
and Grapes. The reception accorded to VINES AND VINE CULTURE 
from all parts of the world where Vines are cultivated has been of the 
most gratifying character. We feel greatly honoured by the many 
expressions of approval we have received, and hereby take this 
opportunity of tendering our respectful thanks to all our kind friends, 
patrons, and critics. That we may have been enabled to impart some 
useful information, and to help in the extended and improved culti- 
vation of this prince of exotic fruits is to us a high reward. 

In presenting a second edition we have to state that we have been 
enabled, by the use of a somewhat smaller type, and printing the 
various plates of Grapes with the text, to greatly reduce the cost, 
whilst at the same time adding considerably to the matter by the 
introduction of several new and important subjects not hitherto 
included. Some little defects pointed out to us by our kind friends 
have been corrected and improved, our aim and endeavour being to 
make our work a trustworthy and useful guide to all those interested 
in the cultivation of the Grape Vine. 

Since the first edition appeared, our dear friend, Thomas Moore, 
who so ably assisted us in its production, has been called away. Our 
thanks are now specially due to Mr. E. D. Blackmore, of Teddington, 
and to Herr Horvath, of Funfkirchen, Hungary, for the kindly 
interest they have taken in our doings, and the interesting and 
valuable information so freely supplied. We have also to tender our 
best thanks to Mr. J. Webber and Mr. Monro, Covent Garden Market, 
for important information in regard to marketing Grapes, to which 
.special attention is directed, as also to Mr. Wright, 171, Fleet Street, 
Mr. Kay, Finchley, Mr. Bashford, Jersey, and Mr. Smith, Caledonia 
Nursery, Guernsey, for their kind aid and assistance. Whatever 
merit VINES AN T D VINE CULTURE may possess, is due in a great 
measure to those who have so freely and so ably assisted us in our 

A. F. B. 

October, 1887. 


AGAIN we are called upon for our VINES AND VINE CULTURE, and 
have to thank the gardening community for the continued highly 
gratifying reception accorded to our work. We have endeavoured 
to hring the present edition up to date by the introduction of 
several new illustrations ; and fresh matter connected with the 
subject of Commercial Grape Culture or the growing of Grapes for 
sale, which has developed to such an extent during the past few years, 
as to become one of the most important industries in the land. 

A. F. B. 

Chiswick, May, 1892. 


Chapter I. HISTORICAL SKETCH Fig. 1 ..... Page 1 









' XL THE SETTING OF THE FRUIT Figs. 22-23 ... 56 

l- XII. THE THINNING OF THE FRUIT Figs. 24-25 ... 60 

v- XIII. THE KEEPING OF THE FRUIT Figs. 26-29 ... 64 





XVIII. GROUND VINERIES -Fig. 32 . . . . . . 79 






XXIV. Noxious INSECTS Figs. 41-53 106 


54-55 118 





*** The figures of berries are natural size ; while those of the bunches are 
one-third natural size. 

Plate I. ALICANTE See description at page 129 

II. ALNWICK SEEDLING . . . * . . . .129 








X. BUCKLAND SWEET WATER . . . . . . .145 


XII. DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH . . . . . . . .153 


XIV. Gr.os COLMAN 158 



XVII. LADY DOWNE'S SEEDLING . ' . . . . .166 




XXI. MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA. . . . . . . .173 




XXV. ROYAL MUSCADINE . . . . ' 185 




XXIX. BRIGHTON .... 197 

XXX. STRAWBERRY . .... 198 


Fig. 1. The Wad Vine Page 2 

2. Vine Cutting 8 

3. Vine Eye . 9 

4. Vine Eye Started 10 

5. Bud Graft 11 

6. Vine Graft . . 14 

7. Flower of the Grape Vine . . . . . . . 17 

8. Lean-to Vinery, Section of ....... 30 

Vine Border, Section of 30 

9. Hipped-roof Vinery, Section of ...... 30 

10. Span-roofed Vinery, Section of ...... 32 

11. Span-roofed Vinery, Plan of . . . . . . . 32 

12. Young Vine Cut Back 42 

13. Young Vine Stem, showing the Mode of Pruning ... 43 

14. Young Vine Stem. Portion of Second Season's Growth . . 45 

15. Vine Shoot of the Third Season from Properly Pruned Spur . 46 

16. Vine Shoot of the Third Season from Improperly Pruned Spur 46 

17. Three- Year-Old Vine Stem, Spur Primed .... 47 

18. Ten- Year-Old Vine Stem, Spur Pruned 48 

19. Portion of Great Vine at Cumberland Lodge .... 50 

20. Young Shoot of Vine, Showing the Mode of Stopping . . 54 

21. Lateral Shoot of Vine, Showing the Mode of Stopping . . 55 

22. Flowers of the Grape Vine, Showing Position of Stamens . 57 

23. Cluster of Grapes Imperfectly Set 58 

24. Small Cluster of Gra res before Thinning 61 

25. Small Cluster of Grapes after Thinning 62 

26. Kail used in Fixing the Bottles for Grapes at Thomery . . 65 

27. Interior of Grape Boom at Thomery 66 

28A. Mode of Fixing the Bottles for Grapes adopted at Ferrieres . 66 

28s. Section of Portion of Upright for Supporting the Bottle Racks 

at Ferrieres . 66 

29. Section of Side of Grape Room at Heckfield, Showing the Mode 

of Arranging and Fixing the Bottles ..... 67 

30. Exhibition Stand for Grapes 70 

31. Pot Vine, Grown by Mr. Sage ...... 77 

32. Mr. Harrison Weir's Ground Vinery 79 

33. View of Interior of the Great Grape Conservatory at Chiswick . 83 
84. Flat Basket of Grapes Packed for Market .... 93 

35. Handle Basket of Grapes Packed for Market .... 94 

36. New Patent Horizontal Tubular Boiler 95 

37. Cross Section of a Vinery at Hoeilaert, Belgium . . . 96 

38. Spot on Grapes 97 

39. Adventitious Roots of Vines 101 

40. Mildew of Grapes, Oidium Tuckeri 103 


Fig. 41. Red Spider 1'age lOtf 

42. Thrips 107 

43. Mealy Bug ... 108 

44. Vine Scale or Coccus 108 

45. Phylloxera vastatrix, Root Form 109 

46. Phylloxera vastatrix. Leaf Form 110 

47. Phylloxera vastatrix, Wingless Female 110 

48. Phylloxera vastatrix, Winged Female, &c. . . . .111 

49. Vine Leaf Infested with Phylloxera 112 

50. The Vine Weevil 114 

51. Tortrix vitisana . . . . . . . . .114 

52. Tortrix angustiorana . . . . . . . .115 

53. (Ecanthus pollucens 116 

54. Mr. Curror's Bunch of Trebbiano 120 

55. Mr. Roberts' Bunch of Gros Guillaume 121 

56. Basket of Grapes 126 

. Lady Downe's Seedling Grapes, as grown at Clovenfords. . 195 


Adventitious roots on Vines, 100 

Aerated borders, 26 

Air- roots on Vines, 100 

Amateurs, Grapes for cultivation by, 119 

American Grapes, 126, 196 

mildew, 104 

Atmosphere, condition of, inVineries,38 

Baskets for Grapes, 93, 94 

Beetle, the Vine, 113 

Black Hamburgh Grapes, largest 

bunches of, 120 
Black Hamburgh Vines : 

Cumberland Lodge, 50, 140 

Hampton Court, 140 

Manresa House, 51, 140 

Bleeding of Vines, 98 

Boilers, 34 

- new patent horizontal tubular, 95 

Borders for Vines : 

aerated, 26 

area of, 23 

concreting, 25 

covering, 26 

drainage of, 25 

formation of, 20 

heated, 26 

inside v. outside, 24 

mulching, 27 

raised or terraced, 25 

renovating old, 27 

soils for, 20 

top-dressing of, 28 

watering, 27 

Baskets for packing Grapes for Market, 

93, 94 
Bottle Grafting, 15 

racks for Grape rooms, 65, 66, 67 

Bottling Grapes, 65 
Bottom heat : 

for Pot Vines, 73 

for Vine Borders, 28 

Budding Vines, 11 

Canon Hall Muscat, 147 

Channel Islands, Grapes grown in, 90 

Chasselas de Fontainebleau in Paris, 

177, 185 
Chiswick, the large Grape Conservatory 

at, 83 
Classes of Grapes : 

American, 126, 196 

European, 124, 127 

Muscat, 125 

Sweetwater, 124 

Vinous, 125 

Classification of Grapes, 123 
Commercial Grape culture, 89 
Common Vine, 1 
Covent Garden prices, 92 
Crossing Vines, results of, 18 
Cumberland Lodge, large Vine at, 

50, 140 

Currant Grape, 137 
Cuttings, propagation of Vines by, 8 
how prepared, 8 

Diptherites, 105 
Disbudding Vines, 52 
Diseases and injuries : 

adventitious or air roots, 100 

American mildew, 104 

bleeding, 13, 98 

diptherites, 105 

fungoid diseases, 10 

fangus on the roots, 10 

lorification, 105 

mildew, 102 

rust, 97 

scalding, 98 

shanking and its causes, 99 

spot, 98 

warts on Vine leaves, 98 



Drainage of Vine borders, 25 

Early Grapes, 120 

Embrunche, 1 

English Grapes in America. 96 

Erineum, 108 

European Grapes : 

classification of, 123 

varieties of, described, 127 

Exhibition, Grapes for, 119 
Grape stand, 70 

packing Grapes for, 70 
Extension system of pruning, 49 
Eyes, Vine, preparation of, 8 

propagation by, 9 

in Jersey and Guernsey, 11 

Ferrieres, system of keeping Grapes 

at, 66 

Flat basket for Grapes, 93 
Flowers of Grape Vine, fertilization 

of, 17, 57 

preparation of, for crossing, 18 

Flues, heating by, 34 

Forcing, directions for, 37 

Foster's Seedling Grape, history of, 156 

Free setting varieties of Grapes, 57 

Fruit, keeping the, 64 

packing the, 68, 94 

for market, 94 

setting the, 56 

thinning the, 60 

Fungoid diseases of Vines, 102 

Grafting Vines, 12 

bottle, 15 

bud, 11 

experiments in, at Chiswick, 82 
wax, 15 

Grapes in Hungary, 159, 168 
Grape growing for market, 89 
in Channel Islands, 90 

in Jersey, 90 

in Guernsey, 90 

in Scotland, 90 

manures used for, 91 

soils for, 91 

structures for, 95 

Grape rooms : 
at Ferrieres, 66 

Grape rooms : 

at Mr. Bashford's, 91 

at Thomery, 66 

at Heckfield, 67 

bottle racks for, 65 

growing in Belgium, 96 

France, 96 

Grapes : 

bottling of, 65 

diseases and injuries of, 97 

mildew, 102 

rust, 97 

scalding, 98 

shanking, 99 

spot, 98 

Exhibition stand for, 70 

for amateurs, 119 

for early forcing, 120 

English, in America, 96 

exhibition, 119 

greenhouse, 118 

for late keeping, 67, 119 

for market, 90, 119 

j in Channel Islands, 90 

in Guernsey, 90 
in Jersey, 90 

in Scotland, 90 

at Worthing, 90 

near London, 90 

prices of, 92 

for open-air culture, 86, 118 

for pot culture, 71, 118 

free setting, 57 

insects injurious to : 

beetle, 113 

erineum, 108 

mealy bug, 107 

moths, 114 

phylloxera, 108 

cecanthus pellucens, 116 

red spider, 106 

scale, 108 

tortrix, 114 

thrips, 107 

weevil, 113 

defect of setting, 57 

introduction of, to England, 4 

. keeping of, 64, 91 

large Eastern, 3 


Grapes : 

largest berried, 122 

late, 67, 119 

of peculiar interest, 122 

of the best quality, 122 

packing of, 68, 94 

selections of, for special purposes, 


shy setting, 57 

sold in Covent Garden, 90 

thinning of, 60 

with largest berries, 122 

with largest bunches, 122 

with stamens deflexed, 57 

erect, 57 

Gros Colman Grape, history of, 158 
Gros Guillaume Grape, history of, 161 
Growing Grapes for market, 89 
Ground Vineries, Mr. Harrison Weir's, 


Hampton Court, Great Vine at, 140 

Handle basket for Grapes, 94 

Heated Borders, 26 

Heckfield, keeping Grapes at, 67 

Hipped-roof Vineries, 30 

Historical notes on Vines and Grapes, 1 

Horizontal tubular boiler, 95 

Hot- water, heating by, 34 

How to prune Vines, 44 

Hybridising Vines, 17 

Impregnation, artificial, 59 

Inarching Vines, 12 

Insects injurious to Vines ; 

erineum, 108 

mealy bug, 107 

cecanthus pellucens, 116 

phylloxera vastatrix, 108 

red spider, 106 

thrips, 107 

tortrix angustiorana, 115 

tortrix vitisana, 114 

vine beetle, 114 

vine louse, 108 

vine scale or coccus, 108 

vine tortrix or moth : 114 

vine weevil, 114 

Insects, to destroy, 106, 113 
Inside v. outside borders, 24 

Keeping the fruit, 64, 91 

in bottles, 65, 91 

on the Vines, 64, 91 

Lady Downe's Seedling Grape, history 

of, 166 
Lambruche, 1 
Lambrunche, 1 
Layering Pot Vines, Miller's system of, 


Layering, propagation by, 7 
Lean to Vineries, 30 
Long-rod system of pruning, 49 
Loritication, 105 

' Management of Vineries : 
; airing, 38 

forcing, 37 

; moisture, 38 

syringing, 38 

temperature, 38 

ventilating, 38 

Manures for Vines, 21, 90 

Market or Sale Grapes, 90, 119 

Grapes, prices of, in Covent 

Garden, 92 

Mastic 1'Homme Lefort, 15 

Mealy bug, 107 

Mildew, the Vine, Oidium Tuckeri, 85, 

American Vine, Peronospora viti- 

cola, 104 

Moss for packing Grapes, 69, 94 

Moth, the Vine, 114 

Mulching Vine borders, 27 

Muscat Grapes, classification of, 125 

Native country of Vine, 1 
New material for packing Grapes, wood 
wool, 69 

(Ecanthus pellucens, 116 
Oidium Balsami, 104 
( Jidium Tuckeri, 102 
1 Outside v. inside borders, 24 



Over-cropping Vines, 99 

Packing Grapes : 

for exhibition, 69 

for market, 94 

baskets for, 93, 94 

wood wool, 69 

Peronospora viticola, 104 

Phylloxera vastatrix the vine louse, 


Planting Vines : 
distance apart at which to plant, 


when and how to do it, 35 

Potash Manures for Vines, 32 

Pot Vines : 

as decorative table plants, 77 

best sorts to grow, 75 

forcing of, at Syon, 75 
fruiting, 75 

Mr. Lewin's mode of growing, 78 

Mr. Sage's mode of growing, 77 

plants obtained by layering, 74 

potting, 72 

propagating, 9, 72 

, repotting, fruiting, 76 

ripening the canes of. 73 

soil for, 72 

temperature, bottom heat, &c., 73 

training, &c., 73 

two-year old plants, 74 

watering, 72 

Prices of Grapes in Co vent Garden, 92 
Propagating Vines : 

by bottle grafting, 15 

Mr. Bashford's method, 11 

by budding, 11 

by cuttings, 8 

by eyes, 9 

by grafting, 12 

by inarching, 12 

by layers, 7 
by seeds, 19 

by whip grafting, 15 

in Jersey and Guernsey, 11 

Pruning and training, 40 

disbudding and stopping 

extension system ot, 49 

Pruning, how to prune, 44 

long-rod system of pruning, 49 

newly planted Vines, 41 

i of Vines on open walls, 86 

spur system of pruning, 41 

Raised or terraced borders, 25 
Red-spider, 107 
Rust on Grapes, 97 

Scale, vine, 108 
Scalding of Grapes, 98 
Seedling Vines, fruiting of, 19 
Seeds, raising Vines from, 17 
Selections of Grapes, 118 
Setting Grapes, 56 
Shanking of Grapes, 90 
Shy-setting Grapes, 57 
Soils for Vine borders, 20 
Span-roofed vineries, 31 
Spot on Grapes, 95, 97 
Spur system of pruning, 41 
Stand, exhibition, for Grapes, 70 
Strawberry Grape, 198 
Stopping Vine shoots, 53 

laterals, 55 

Structures for Grape growing, 29, 95 
Sulphur, how to apply, 104 
Sweetwater Grapes, classification of, 124 
Syrian Grape, Speechly's large bunch 

of, 178, 187 
Syringing Vines, 39 

Table plants, pot Vines as decorative, 77 
Temperatures for Vine forcing, 38 

lor setting the fruit, 56 

Terraced borders, 25 

The wild Vine, 2 

Thinning Grapes, 60 

Thomery, Grape-room at, 66 

Thomson's Manure for Vines, 23 

Thrips, 107 

Top-dressing Vine borders, 28 

Training Vines, 40 

Trebbiano, large bunches of, 120, 189 

Trellises for Vine training, 33 


Ventilation of Vineries, 38 
Vine borders : 

aerated, '26 

concreting, 25 

covering, 26 

drainage of, 25 

formation of, 20 

heated, 26 

inside v. outside, 24 

manures, 21 

bone, 22 

potash, 22 

Thomson's, 23 

mulching. 27 

raised or terraced, 25 

renovating exhausted, 27 
restriction of, 24 

soils for, 20 

top-dressing, 28 
watering, 27 

Vine beetle, 114 

cricket, 116 

louse, 105, 108 

mildew, 102 

moth or tortrix, 114 

scale or coccus, 108 

- weevil, 114 

- wild, 1 
Vineries : 
early, 29 

general crop, 29 

general management of, 37 

ground, 79 

heating, 34 

amount of piping required 

for, 34 

boilers, 34 

by flues, 34 

" hot -water, 34 

hipped -roofed, 30 

late, 31 

lean-to, 30 

span-roofed, 32 

trellis for, 33 

ventilation of, 33 

Vinery, Great, at Chiswick, 81 

at Hoeilaert, 96 

Vines : 

budding, 11 

Vines : 

disbudding and stopping, 52 

diseases of, 97 

distance at which to plant, 36 

grafting, 12, 15 

growing in Belgium, 96 

France, 96 

historical sketch of, 1 

hybridising, 17 

inarching, 12 

in ground Vineries, 79 

injuries to, 94, 97 

in pots, 71 

fruiting of, 75 

insects hurtful to, 106 

manures for, 21, 90 

on open walls, 85 

planting of, 35, 86 

propagation of, 7 

pruning and training, 40 

raising from seed, 17 

setting the fruit of, 18 

soils for, 20, 90 

tying down the shoots of, 53 

Vines, large : 

at Cumberland Lodge, 50, 140 

at Finchley, 140 

at Hampton Court, 134, 140 

at Harewood, 173 

at Manresa House, Roehampton, 

51, 140 
Vine spurs, formation of, 44 

- Vineyard at Castle Coch, 88 
Vinous Grapes, classification of, 125 
Vitis labrusca, 123, 196 
vinifera, 1, 123 

Walls, culture of Vines on open, 85 

position of, 86 

varieties suitable for, 86 

Warts on Vine leaves, 98 

Watering Vine borders, 27 

Wax for grafting, 15 

Weevil, the Vine, 113 

White Nice Grape, large bunchts, 183 


Wild Vine, 1, 2. 
Wood wool, 69 






'HE Grape Vine Vitis vinifera grows wild in the temperate 
I regions of Western Asia, Northern Africa, and Southern 
Europe. It is generally believed to be indigenous to Armenia, 
to the south of the Caucasus, where it grows with great 
luxuriance, clinging to tall trees, and producing fruit in great abund- 
.ance and variety. 

Fig. 1. is an illustration of the common Vine, run wild, as it is 
found in France, where it grows in hedges or on the borders of woods, 
from pips disseminated by birds, etc. It is there called Embrunche, 
Lambrunche, or Lambruche, from the Latin Labrusca a wild Vine. 
The bunches are generally small, and the berries sour and with little 
flesh ; and vary considerably in shape and colour, retaining, to some 
extent, the characteristics of the particular variety of which it may be 
an accidental seedling. 

The cultivation of the Grape Vine has, from the earliest time, 
.attracted the attention of man. In nearly every portion of the Holy 
Scriptures, from the record of the Flood to that of the Crucifixion of 
the Saviour, the Vine is mentioned. In the Book of Genesis we are 
informed that " Noah began to be an Husbandman, and he planted a 
Vineyard ; " and in the Book of Numbers we read that " The men 
whom Moses had sent to spy the Land of Canaan returned with a 
bunch of Grapes, which they bare between two upon a staff." 
Solomon had a Vineyard that let for a thousand pieces of silver. 
In the Psalms of David, the Vine, evidently from its well-known 
character, is often referred to in a symbolical sense : " Thy wife 
shall be as the fruitful Vine upon the walls of thine house." " Thou 
hast brought a Vine out of Egypt, thou hast cast out the heathen and 
planted it." 





Records of the cultivation of the Vine and of the making of wine 
in Egypt are found in the writings on the ancient tombs, which go 
back some five or six thousand years. The fact that Vines succeed 
best where the roots are enabled to draw abundance of moisture 
seems to have been well understood in olden times ; thus we read 
in Ezekiel (xix., 10) : "Thy mother is like a Vine in thy blood, 
planted by the waters ; she was fruitful and full of branches by 
reason of many waters." 

The heathens likewise held the Vine in high estimation, more 
especially, it would appear, for the wine that was made from it. 
Bacchus was elevated to the rank of a god, for having taught men 
the use of the Vine. He is often represented as an old man, crowned 
with a Vine, to teach us, as some writers have put it, " that wine 
taken immoderately will make us childish like old men." Wine was 
used by the ancient Romans in the worship of their gods. Plato says 
nothing more excellent or valuable was ever granted by God to man. 

In various old books we read almost fabulous accounts of the great 
size to which the Grape Vine grew in olden times in Eastern countries. 
Pliny says that Vines were ranked as trees, and speaks of one that 
in his time was six hundred years old. Theophrastus speaks of a 
Vine so large, that a statue of Jupiter, and the columns of Juno's 
Temple were made of it. Strabo says that the Vines of Margiana 
and other places were so great that it required two men to compass 
them with their arms ; and he speaks of bunches of Grapes a yard 
in length. At the Duke of Montmorency's house, at Ecoan, there is- 
a large table, which, it is stated, is made of the wood of the Vine ; and 
the doors of the Cathedral of Ravenna are made of Vine Tree planks. 
It is also stated that on the coast of Barbary there are some very large 
old Vines growing. 

The Eastern Grapes are described as being large and wonderful. 
At Damascus the bunches are mentioned as weighing upwards of 
twenty-five pounds ; and at Sidonijah, near Damascus, some of the 
Grapes are stated to be as large as pigeons' eggs. In the Islands of 
the Archipelago, the bunches are stated to be from ten to forty pounds 
weight each, while in Persia the Grapes are described as being so large 
that a single berry is a good mouthful. How far credence may be 
given to these statements as to the great size of the Vines them- 
selves, and that of the berries statements which seem almost 
incredible we have no means of determining. It is, however, alike 
remarkable and satisfactory to note that the size and weight ascribed 
to the bunches have been approached if not equalled by the 
cultivators of the present day. Grapes would appear to have been 
at one time extensively grown in Syria, but their cultivation there 
has been for ages neglected. This may be owing to the spread in 
those regions of the Mahommedan religion, which forbids the use of 
wine, although it permits the eating of the Grapes. It is to- 


the Romans that we are indebted for the introduction of the Grape. 
We are told that in Italy, about A.D. 85, the planting of Vineyards 
had so much increased that agriculture was thereby neglected, and 
Domitian issued an edict prohibiting the planting of any new 
Vineyards, and also ordered one-half of those existing to be cut 
down. The Romans trained their Vines to trees, such as the Poplar 
and Elm : hence these trees were said to be "married to the Vines." 
Thus in Ovid's Vertumnus and Pomona : 

" If that fair Elm, he cried, alone should stand, 
No Grapes would glow with gold to tempt the hand ; 
Or, if that Vine without her Elm should grow, 
'Twould creep a poor neglected shrub below." 

Thus, also, Shakespeare in the Comedy of Errors 

" Thou art an Elm, my husband, I a Vine, 
Whose weakness, married to thy stronger state, 
Makes me with thy strength to communicate." 

Pliny states that the Vines in Italy would out-top the highest trees. 
On this account the Grape-gatherers used to insert a clause in their 
agreements to the effect that if they should fall and were killed, their 
masters should be at the expense of burying them. 

It is uncertain at what period the Vine was introduced into 

England. Some writers think it must have been in the reign of the 

Emperor Augustus, about A.D. 10, as at that time the Romans had 

possession of a great part of this country, and largely introduced the 

luxuries of Italy. Others think that it was not introduced until about 

A.D. 280, during the reign of the Emperor Probus. It is, however, 

certain that Vineyards existed in this country at a very early period 

of our history. They are mentioned in the "Domesday Book," and also 

by Bede, who wrote in A.D. 731. The Isle of Ely was called the Isle 

of Vines by the Normans, the Bishop of Ely, shortly after the 

Conquest, receiving as tithes wine made from the Vines grown in his 

diocese. In the reign of Henry III. we read of Vineyards. Malmes- 

bury mentions the county of Gloucester as being, in his time, very 

rich in Vineyards : and there still remain traces of that at Tortworth. 

The first Earl of Salisbury planted a Vineyard at Hatfield, which is 

noted as being in existence when Charles I. was taken there as a 

prisoner. There are records of Vineyards existing in various parts of 

Surrey, and a notable one, which is still partly in existence, once 

flourished at Bury St. Edmunds. Vineyards seem to have been 

common to all monastic establishments, but the suppression of these, 

and subsequently the fact of cheap foreign wines becoming more 

easily accessible, led, no doubt, to neglect in their cultivation. 

About the year 1560, Grapes seem to have become rather scarce, as 
we read of Grindell, Bishop of London, sending Queen Elizabeth a 
present of Grapes every year from Fulham ; Grapes being esteemed 
of great value, and a fruit Queen Elizabeth " stood well affected to." 


These must have been cultivated in the open air, as hot-houses were 
little used, if at all, in England, even at the beginning of the last 
century ; while talc, not glass, or what was termed " Muscovy glass," 
was the lighting medium used in their construction. 

Speechly mentions a Yine that was growing in the open air at 
Northallerton, in Yorkshire, in 1789, that had covered a space of one 
hundred and thirty-two square yards, and was supposed to have been 
planted one hundred and fifty years. During the last century, the 
cultivation of Grapes seems to have become pretty general ; several 
notable examples being still in existence as that of the Black 
Hamburgh Vine at Valentine's, Ilford, in Essex which Gilpin, in his 
Forest Scenery, says was planted in 1758. This was stated to be the 
oldest Vine in England, and to be the parent of the still more 
celebrated Vine at Hampton Court, which was planted in 1769, and 
now covers a space of about two hundred and twenty square yards. 
Of more modern Vines, the most remarkable examples are those at 
Cumberland Lodge, Windsor, which annually produces about two 
thousand pounds weight of Grapes ; the great Vine at Hampton Court, 
and that at Sillwood Park, Sunninghill. 

The cultivation of Grapes in the open air in this country is not 
now practised to any extent, the introduction of cheap glass, orchard 
houses, ground vineries, etc., leading to far more satisfactory results. 
At Castle Coch, Cardiff, the Marquis of Bute has established a Vine- 
yard on a somewhat extensive scale, as an experiment. See chap. xxi. 
In congenial seasons, in the southern and warmer parts of England, 
fairly good Grapes may undoubtedly be grown on walls in the open 
air, and it does seems a pity that more attention is not bestowed on 
this branch of their cultivation. 

In regard to the number of varieties existing in olden times, very 
little information is to be obtained. Pliny says that in his time they 
had a " multiplicity of Vines, both thick-skinned and thin-skinned." 
In Europe, at the present time, the number of varieties is beyond 
computation. In one catalogue of 1881 alone, that of M. Andr& 
Leroy, of Angers, four hundred and seventeen names are given. Every 
country every district almost has varieties peculiar to itself, adapted 
to the several climates, as well as to the purposes required ; thus there 
are the Hungarian and Italian Grapes, few of which are known in 
this country ; the French Grapes, and the Spanish Grapes, etc., not to 
speak of the American Grapes, which belong to another species. 
Grapes are no\v also largely cultivated in various parts of Australia, 
the South African Colonies, and many other countries. 

In this country, Grapes being almost exclusively grown for dessert 
purposes, the number of varieties in general cultivation is comparatively 
limited. Until a very few years ago these were all of foreign intro- 
duction, but of late years many English seedlings have been added. 
Miller, in 1768, describes eighteen sorts ; Speechly, in 1791, records 


fifty sorts ; Forsyth, in 1810, fifty-three sorts ; Thompson, in the 
Horticultural Society 8 Fruit Catalogue, in 1831, records one hundred 
and eighty-two names ; and, finally, Hogg, in the Fruit Manual, 
published in 1884, describes one hundred and forty-three varieties 
very carefully, this last being, in fact, the only authentic list ever 

To Mr. Thomas Rivers is due the credit of introducing many new 
varieties of Grapes ; and the same may be said in reference to the 
Royal Horticultural Society, which, in its garden at Chiswick, has 
been the means of having many hundreds of varieties tested, mostly 
under our own observation. 

In no country in the world are Grapes grown with so much care, 
and brought to such perfection, as in Great Britain. Grapes of the 
highest quality are now becoming common in every household ; and 
fresh Grapes may be obtained at all seasons of the year spring, 
summer, autumn, and winter. During the past twenty-five years, the 
cultivation of Grapes has increased to an extraordinary extent ; 
forming a special object of commercial enterprise. See chap, xxii., 
Commercial Grape Culture. 



'HE Vine is a plant of most simple and easy propagation, roots 
being very freely and readily produced from every portion of 
the stem, if only it be placed under favourable conditions. 
Let the natural or proper roots of a Vine become disorganised, 
and immediately the whole stem, if in a humid atmosphere, will 
become clothed with roots, which hang from it like a long beard. 
These are generally called air roots, or adventitious roots, but would, 
if allowed, fix themselves in the soil and become ordinary roots. 

Thus nature gives us the first lesson in the art of propagating the 
Vine. We are by this means, at least, shown that roots are very 
readily produced from the old or ripened wood. But never under any 
circumstances do we see roots being produced from the young or 
growing wood; and although by great skill and care a few plants 
might be so propagated, the number would be very limited. 

Various methods of propagation by means of the ripened wood are, 
or may be adopted, namely, by Layers, by Cuttings, and by Eyes ; 
also by Budding, Inarching, and Grafting. 

1. Layers. This is the most primitive method of all, and might, 
indeed, be . termed the natural method. It is a rough and ready 
mode of increase, so far, at least, as regards the Vine, and is only 
resorted to by those who have but slender means at their command. 
To layer, we have simply to take a branch or shoot of the fully 
ripened wood, and place it so that the part at which it is wished to 
have the roots emitted may rest on the soil, and fasten it firmly into 
this position. It is not necessary to cut the stem in any way, as 
Toots will be emitted very freely without this if the soil be kept moist. 
When it is found that roots have been produced, the layered portion 
may be partly or wholly severed from the parent plant. The Vine 
stems may, of course, be layered either into pots or into the soil of 
the borders as may be required. Pots with soil in them may also be 
suspended for the more convenient placing of the shoots for layering. 
A not uncommon practice is to lead the shoots through the bottom of 
the pot, which is then filled with soil, into which the Vine readily 
takes root, and when rooted is dissevered. Very strong Vines are 
thus obtained by means of layering. Again, damp moss or any other 
similar material may be tied round the stem, and roots will be readily 
produced from the parts thus covered, so that plants may in this 
manner be obtained. 


Fig. 2. 


2. Cuttings. This term is applied to Vine shoots 
having several buds or eyes, as shown in fig. 2. This 
mode of increase is that generally adopted in the Vine- 
yards of all the great Vine-growing countries, where 
Vines are required by thousands : but it is rarely made 
use of for raising them in this country. We, however, 
adopt much the same method in the propagation of 
our Currants and Gooseberries. The cuttings are 
selected and cut into lengths of from eight to twelve 
inches, leaving usually attached a small piece of 
the two-year-old wood a " heel," as it is termed. 
The French term such cuttings boutures par crossette. 
The Vignerons are, however, not very particular as to 
the quantity of this old wood which is left, or, 
indeed, whether there is any left, and it is quite 
immaterial. The lower eyes or buds should be cut out, 
leaving only two or three at the top of the cutting. 
In the Vineyards these cuttings are planted in the 
ground at once, in small trenches, and treated as per- 
manent plants. It is a method which has not been, 
and never will be, much practised in this country. 

3. Eyes. By this term is meant the single buds 
of the ripened wood of the previous season's growth. 
This is the mode of propagating the Vine almost 
universally adopted throughout this country, and it is 
by far the best ; it is, however, only available for 
practice under glass, so that it is suited to our necessi- 
ties, and could not be followed were we obliged to have 
recourse to open-air propagation. Fig. 3 shows the 
eye as prepared for planting. There is no art or skill 
required in the preparation. The rule is to select 
always the most perfect eyes from the best ripened 
wood of Vines that have been matured early ; such 
buds will be found to start much more freely than 
those from later ripened wood. It is the hard well- 
matured wood, with firm plump eyes, that must be 
looked for, where a stock has to be raised, in preference 
to the thick soft wood, with seemingly forward eyes. 
It is well, therefore, to be somewhat particular in 
selecting the eyes, so that every one of them may be 
depended on; this is far better than putting in a 
great number, and then having to throw half of them 
away. Having selected the wood, proceed to cut the 
eyes, as shown in fig. 3, to about one inch or a little 
more in length, that is to say, about half-an-inch on 
each side of the eye. Some persons prefer cutting 
the wood straight across, whilst others favour a slightly 


slanting cut; we rather prefer the latter, but it matters 

very little. Some consider it of great importance 

to cut a small piece off the wood on the side opposite 

to the eye, but we have not observed any benefit 

from so doing. The callus is produced below the 

bud, and generally first on the upper side, i.e., the 

same side as the bud ; it is seldom formed directly 

opposite to the eye, except when cut very closely, 

and never beyond or above the eye. The fact is, 

the roots are produced independently of the eye, 

from any portion of the stem having an eye or bud . "I, E 

above it, but more freely near to where the cut is 

made. All that is left above the bud is inert and dies away. There 

is no advantage, therefore, in leaving any length of wood beyond the 


The season for " putting in " the eyes is any time during January 
or February. The earlier the operation is performed, the earlier, of 
course, can the young Vines be finished off. Some prefer cutting the 
eyes in December, and placing them in soil in pans in a cold frame 
until about February, before they are put into heat ; others cut them 
and place them in heat at once, and that is the plan which we prefer. 
The beginning of February may, therefore, be taken as a good and 
safe mid-season for performing the operation. A few days earlier 
or later are, however, quite immaterial, much more being dependent 
on the after-management of the plants. 

There are many ways of " putting in" the eyes. They may be placed 
in shallow pans, i.e., a number of eyes in each pan, in properly prepared 
soil, to be potted off after they have made some roots and have 
commenced growing ; or they may be and this is, perhaps, the best 
plan of all placed singly in small three-inch pots, which should 
first have some charcoal or broken crocks put at the bottom, and 
be filled up with a compost of one-half fresh turfy loam, and one- 
half leaf-mould, not too much decayed, with a good proportion of 
sand. When the pot is filled, the soil not being pressed down over 
firmly, make a hole in the soil sufficiently large to hold a walnut, 
which should be filled with silver-sand; place the eye on this, 
pressing it down until the top of the bud is just level with the 
surface of the soil. The pots or pans containing the eyes should 
then be plunged in a bed having a bottom heat of about 80, and a 
top temperature of from 65 to 70. 

Another good method, where a number of eyes have to be 
propagated, and where there is convenience for adopting it, is to 
prepare a small portion of the bed itself with suitable soil, and to 
place the eyes there at once, removing them and potting them off as 
they become fit. This is an economisation of space in the propagating 
pit, which, in the spring season, is always much crowded. A most 



excellent plunging material is cocoa-nut refuse placed over hot-water 
tanks. The eyes themselves strike root most readily into this 
material when it is mixed with a little sand, only the roots formed 
do not make a sufficiency of fibres, so that they remove badly. The 
soil should be gently watered after putting in the eyes, and be kept 
moist, but not at any time allowed to become soddened. When 
these " eye-cuttings " commence to form a callus, the buds will, at the 
same time, be bursting into leaf. This is the delicate and critical 
period, for every part is tender and easily destroyed. It is necessary 


at this stage to be extremely careful as to the watering and the 
temperature. Once, however, that the top is growing, and the roots 
started, as in fig. 4, reaching to the side of the small pot, they are 
comparatively safe ; and this, if all circumstances have been favourable, 
should be in about a fortnight after inserting the eyes. About the 



time that the first leaf is fully developed, when the young plants are 
about two inches high, they should be potted into five-inch pots, and 
from that time grown on rapidly. See Pot Culture, chap. xv. 

In Jersey and Guernsey a very simple system of propagation is 
frequently adopted, the eyes and short-jointed cuttings being " put in " 
in the open ground in beds, where they are grown for three years, when 
they are considered ready for planting in their permanent positions. 
The following plan is also adopted : About March, some No. 2 pots 
are selected and filled to within three inches of the rim with good 
strong soil ; on this the Vine eyes are placed, about one inch 
apart, and covered with fine soil. The pots are then placed in 
some sheltered situation, and occasionally watered. By September 
the eyes are well rooted, and the growths from one to two feet 
long. The following spring these plants are shaken out and planted 
in light sandy warm soil, where they are allowed to grow till autumn ; 
they are then cut back to three or four eyes, and left till the 
following spring, when they are carefully lifted and planted in their 

4. Budding. The budding of the Vine differs somewhat from the 
operation which is ordinarily understood by the term " budding " as 
practised with the Rose, etc. In the case of the Rose, the bud as 
attached to the bark only is inserted, the whole of the wood being 
removed ; while in the case of the Vine, the wood of the bud is not 
removed, but left as it is in a graft, so that the operation may more 
properly be termed bud-grafting. Fig. 5 shows a " bud-graft," or an 
" eye," such as was shown by fig. 3, prepared for affixing to the stock, 
and represents a bud of the ripened wood of the previous season's 
growth. The mode of performing the operation is 
simple, it being only required to make a cut on the 
stock corresponding to the cut on the prepared bud, so 
that the inner bark of the stock and that of the bud 
may be brought together. See Grafting, p. 12. 

Budding the Vine in the manner here described is not 
much practised. It is, however, sometimes advantageous, 
as by its means the bare stems of Vines can be re-clothed 
for the buds can be inserted on any part of the stem. 
We have had recourse to this method when by accident a 
shoot has got broken off in the operation of tying down ; 
and it is just at this stage, when the Vines are in flower, 
and the shoots are being tied down, that the operation can 
be most advantageously performed; but of this more 

There is another method of budding Vines, which is 
frequently practised, and that is with the young half- 
ripened wood while there is still a sufficient flow of sap 
going on for the formation of cambium to form the union, BUD GRAFT. 


the bud remaining dormant until the following spring. The bud is- 
taken from a Vine-shoot which is in a growing condition, or which 
has just begun to ripen. The bud is cut from the shoot in the usual 
manner, with a leaf, as in the case of the Rose, only the wood is not 
extracted, but is inserted with the bud on to the stock, in the same 
manner as in the bud-graft shown in fig. 5. The younger the stock 
on which this method of budding is performed the better. It cannot 
be advantageously practised on very old stems. It is a good plan for 
rapidly testing the merits of a new sort, since it permits of a great 
number of buds being inserted on a Vine already established. 

5. Inarching, or grafting, par approche, as the French very properly 
term the operation, is a method of attaching two growing plants 
together, and it is very frequently adopted in the case of Vines. It is 
found to be a safe and easy process, and there are many ways of 
doing it. A shoot of a permanent Vine may be inarched on to a Vine 
in a pot, and a new plant of the permanent Vine be thus obtained ; or 
a plant in a pot may be so placed as to admit of its top being inarched 
on to a permanent plant, and this is more frequently the requirement. 
Some cultivators perform the operation whilst the plants are at rest^ 
but this is not a safe period \ others inarch about the time when the 
first leaves are expanded, when the first rush of sap is over, and at 
this time inarching can be performed with the greatest certainty 
of success. The operation is subject to the same rules as grafting, 
and will be explained under that head, the only difference being that 
the scion is not separated from the parent stock until after the union 
has taken place. 

There is another process of inarching, however, which is very much 
in favour with many Vine-growers, viz., that of uniting the green or 
growing shoots of the stock and scion. The union in this case is 
formed very quickly and very effectively, and the inarched shoot, in 
the course of a week or so, grows away quite freely, The difficulty 
in this process is that the stock and scion must necessarily be of an 
almost equal thickness, and so when it is wished to inarch a young 
slender growth on to a large-stemmed old Vine, it can only be 
accomplished by the medium of one of the side-shoots. Some growers 
like this method so much, that instead of trusting to simple grafting, 
they first " strike the eye," and grow the plant to a certain size, then 
inarch it. It is eminently a safe and sure method. 

To inarch, then, is simply to bring two growing shoots or stems 
together, and to unite or fasten them to each other, as in grafting. 
As soon as the scion has fairly taken hold, sever it from its own root 
partially at first, and finally and completely in about a week after,, 
keeping the stock in subjection so as to give prominence to the scion. 

6. Grafting. The grafting of the Vine has generally been 
considered a somewhat difficult operation, and it is actually so. In 
the scion, as in the stock, part of the tissue or substance of the plant 


lias ceased to grow, while another part is still in a growing state, or, 
.at least, is capable of growth. The object of the operation is to 
secure adequate contact of the growing portions of the scion and of the 
stock respectively. The difficulty of the process lies, not in the 
operation itself, but chiefly in getting the stock and the scion into 
iit condition for each other. The Vine is a plant in which, at 
the commencement of growth, a most extraordinary quantity of 
water ascends from the root, so much so that if any portion of the 
stem is cut at that time, a very large outpouring of watery fluid takes 
place, which gardeners term " bleeding," although there is no real 
analogy between this flow of water and the efflux of blood in animals. 
If cut in winter, this " bleeding " does not take place, neither after 
the Vines have got into full leaf does this flow occur. Some growers 
recommend grafting before the rise of this watery sap takes place, 
when the plants are at rest ; this is not, however, at all a satisfactory 
or successful time, and the reason why it is not so is chiefly this : 
there is a want of moisture in the substance of the stock, to sustain 
the vitality of the scion and facilitate growth, for in grafting or 
budding, the tissues must be more or less turgid with moisture, but 
in this case they are not sufficiently so, and so no union is effected. 
To graft it as we should an Apple, just when the watery sap begins 
to flow, would be fatal in the case of the Vine, on account of the 
.great amount of liquid, which would continue to flow for days, and 
thus prevent the union of the parts. The period which we have found 
to be the safest and most satisfactory for grafting is just after the 
first rush of watery sap has passed, when the cells, which constitute 
the tissues or substance of the plant, are in a growing condition, and 
before they get dried up. This is also about the time when the 
first few leaves are fully expanded and the Vines are in flower ; but 
it is dependent greatly on the strength of the plant, as a vigorous 
plant will have the watery sap continuing to flow in full tide for 
-a much longer time than a weaker one. A very good test for 
ascertaining the exact period we have found to be this : With the 
point of a knife, just prick the bark ; if a little moisture exudes, the 
stock is in condition for the graft ; if there is none, it is too late to 
attempt it ; but should it happen that there is a great flow, continuing 
for some days, do not attempt to graft or to cut the stock any 
more, until this flow has somewhat subsided. This pricking will 
not, from the smallness of the incision, cause much harm, but injury 
would assuredly result were the cut to be enlarged, as would be 
required in grafting ; while from the amount of bleeding and the 
exudation of the cell-contents the union could not, under such 
circumstances, take place. 

The stock, then, being found in the right condition, it is necessary 
to have the grafts so likewise they, of course, should also have been 
properly cared for. To have the cuttings or scions in proper condition 



is a most important point in all propagation, and inattention to this is 
very frequently the cause of failures amongst the inexperienced. In 

Fig. 6. VINE GRAFT. 

the case of Vines which have to be pruned in winter, the grafts should 
be selected at that time and laid by, in soil behind a north wall, or 
where they may be shaded from the sun. In a situation like this the 


eyes will keep fresh until midsummer, and can be used at any time 
when required. A day or two before they are likely to be required, 
they should be examined ; if late in spring, and the buds are slightly 
" on the move," they are in proper condition ; if they have not yet 
commenced swelling, place them in heat, so as to have the buds just a 
little excited, and in such a state that, when cut through, the scion 
may appear to be a little moist over the cut surface. 

The stock and scion being thus in condition, the operation may be 
performed in the manner shown by fig. 6. Cut down the stock to 
any point required, selecting, of course, some suitable part for fitting 
on the scion not always easily to be found on old Vine stems. 
At whatever part of the stock it may be determined to affix the scion, 
it is necessary to leave a growing shoot and some leaves above this 
point, for the purpose of drawing off, by evaporation, the superabun- 
dant water, and likewise for forming, and, perhaps, drawing up 
nourishment for the supply of the scion itself until a union is 
formed. Vines, it may be remarke,d, have their buds wide apart, and 
this is frequently overlooked in dealing with them. In a pruned 
Tine, there is little or no vitality in the bit of stem that may be left 
beyond a bud ; the vitality practically ceases at the bud, so that were 
a graft to be put on with no bud beyond, it could not grow for want 
of growing tissue to which it could adhere. 

The process of grafting may be performed in various ways, to which 
it will be unnecessary to allude here. The simplest and best is that 
represented by our figure common whip-grafting. It does not matter 
how large the stem of the Vine may be, for, the graft being prepared, 
a corresponding portion of the stem is made bare, the requirement 
being to make as much inner bark to fit inner bark as possible, so that 
the growing parts of the scion may be in the closest approximation to 
the corresponding parts of the stock. The scion being affixed should 
be tied on tightly with matting and covered up with some mastic or 
grafting wax. Mastic 1'Homme Lefort is the best material we have 
ever used, requiring no preparation. Clay and moss are objectionable, 
for this reason, that as there is so much moisture in the house, the 
graft, instead of forming an organic union, emits roots into the clay, 
etc., instead of uniting with the stock. In about ten or twelve 
days after grafting, if the operation has been successful,, the bud 
will have grown somewhat. The shoots left on the stock beyond 
the graft should now be checked and kept in subjection to the graft ; 
and in about a month's time the matting and wax may be removed 
and the shoot treated as established. 

.Vines grafted in this manner on strong stocks will grow twenty to 
thirty feet the first season, and produce the strongest possible wood ; 
and Vines of any size or of any age, if in a healthy condition, may be 
so operated upon. It is a capital plan of introducing a new variety 
into an established house. 


Another very excellent and certain mode of grafting Vines is that 
which is termed Bottle Grafting. It is thus described by Mr. Wright 
in The Journal of Horticulture, xxiv., 77 (1873): "Select a stout, 
short-jointed, well-matured lateral shoot for a scion, with bold buds. 
Take a slice off the graft near the middle, say five inches long, leaving 
four inches below it for inserting into a bottle, and three inches above 
(with a bud) to grow and form the future Vine. Take a similar slice 
off the stock, fit the two together, and bandage round with tape. 
The slicing should be done quickly, cleanly, and fearlessly, not merely 
removing the bark, but shaving pretty well into the wood. After 
tying, no moss or clay or any other covering being required, suspend an 
ordinary wine bottle fixed securely, with the end of the graft inside, and 
keep this filled with rain-water, placing a little charcoal in the water 
to keep it pure. When the grafts have grown six feet not before, 
remove the bottles and the ligatures, and the operation is completed. 
This mode of grafting is performed about the same time as the other 
after the Vines have commenced to grow. If carefully executed, 
few failures will occur, and if the Vines are strong, canes or rods, from 
eighteen to twenty feet in length, will be produced the same season, 
healthy Vines bearing a full crop of fruit at the same time." 




are so easily propagated from cuttings, etc., as already 
explained, that the raising of them from seeds is not often had 
recourse to, except for the purpose of obtaining new varieties. 
The varieties of Grapes usually reproduce themselves from seed, that is 
to say, if the seed of a certain variety be sown, that same variety will 
most likely be raised from it. They only vary to a limited extent, 
unless they are artificially impregnated. A seedling Vine may 
perchance have a little more vigour in its constitution, and so for a 
time produce larger fruit, and, consequently, be considered a distinct 
variety ; hence, many Grapes have been sent out as distinct, but which 
ultimately have proved to be nothing but the old sorts. Unless great 
care has been taken to properly cross-fertilise the flowers, the chances 
are a hundred to one that nothing new will be obtained. 

The flower of the Grape Vine is so constituted that its self-fertili- 
sation, or fecundation by its own pollen is, in general, easily and 



readily accomplished, provided the pollen and the stigma be in fit 
condition at the same time. There is, however, except in a few 
varieties, almost always an abundance of pollen, and circumstances 
being favourable, there are not many that do not set every 
flower in a natural manner. It is in this facility of self-fertilisation 
that, in a great measure, lies the difficulty of its cross-fertilisation, 
although the visits of flies and other insects to the flowers in search 
of the nectar secreted by the green glands at the base of the ovary, 
see fig. 7 c and d, must undoubtedly bring about cross fertilisation in 
some cases, 


Fig. 7 a represents a longitudinal section of the flower of the 
Grape Vine, showing the pistil and stamens as they are situate just 
previous to its expansion or opening. It will be observed that the 
whole is at this time shut in by a sort of sheath or " cap," as it is 
called, formed by the united petals, which are here of a greenish 
colour. Fig. 7b represents the flower a stage further advanced, that 
is to say, where it shows the first signs of opening. When seen in 
this condition in bright sunshine, it is only a question of an hour or 
two for it to fully expand, for the "cap" to be thrown off, and for 
it to appear as in fig. 7c, so rapidly do the changes take place. 

The act of fertilisation is effected at this period. The various 
segments of the sheath or " cap " roll up one after the other, until at 
last it rests on the point of the stamens and pistil. By a sudden jerk 
it is then thrown off, the stamens suddenly relieved from the pressure 
of the cap fly apart and at the same time the pollen is projected on 
to the pistil, and fertilisation is effected. 

To cross-fertilise one variety with another, it is necessary to take 
measures in advance of the natural development, so that self-fertilisa- 
tion may not be effected. To accomplish this, select, some days 
previously to the opening of the first flowers, the bunch which is to 
be operated on as the female or seed-bearing parent ; cut away all the 
flowers, with the exception of ten or a dozen, and have these enclosed 
in a thin muslin bag, which must be sufficiently close in texture to 
keep out all insects bearing foreign pollen. It is necessary to watch and 
examine these flowers minutely until they appear as in fig. 75 ; then, 
being provided with a pair of finely-pointed scissors or pincers, pull off 
the cap by force, and immediately cut away the stamens, as shown in 
fig. Id. This is rather a delicate operation, and requires the greatest 
care and patience to execute without injury to the pistil or ovary, all 
the parts being so small, and frequently awkwardly situated. 

As soon as the stamens are all cut off from those flowers which 
may be fit, the pollen of the sort selected for the male parent 
may be applied. This is best applied to the stigma surmounting 
the ovary of the prepared flower by means of a small camel-hair 
pencil. After the application, enclose the fertilised cluster in the 
muslin bag again, and the operation is complete. The same process 
will, however, have to be gone through daily, or twice a day, as the 
flowers may become fit, until they have all been manipulated. If a 
single flower be allowed to expand naturally it may ruin the whole 

The choice or selection of stocks, or parents from which to raise 
seedlings, must be mainly determined by fancy. A tolerably safe 
rule to abide by is to have a good constitution in the female parent, 
in order to secure a good-constitutioned progeny, and to trust to the 
male parent for whatever peculiarity it is intended to introduce. 

It has been observed that the result of the first cross has verv 


often been the introduction of a great mass of rubbish, but that 
when these crosses are again crossed, the most decided and important 
results are obtained. No estimate can well be formed as to the 
results of any particular cross. In the progeny the characters of 
both parents frequently appear, while sometimes those of neither can 
be traced. As a rule, the seedlings are generally of inferior quality, 
and most heterogeneous, all sorts being produced black, white, round, 
ovate, etc. It is well to sow the seeds as soon as they are ripe, and 
grow the plants on as rapidly as possible, for if the seeds are kept 
until spring, a great many of them may perish, as they soon lose 
their vitality. 

Seedling Vines are tiresome plants to fruit in pots, although it may 
seem a most convenient thing to do ; they do not bear fruit readily 
or freely, and if, as is well known, a pot plant does not show fruit, a 
fresh plant has to be raised, thereby entailing much trouble and risk 
of losing the variety. The best plan, therefore, as well as the most 
satisfactory, is to plant them out in some temporary position, where 
they can be allowed to giow and fruit when they will most likely 
in the second year or they may be budded or grafted on to existing 
Vines, and so get them thoroughly tested before being approved of or 




'HE Grape Vine is a remarkably free-growing plant, and is found 
I in a state of great luxuriance under many very opposite 
conditions, and in soils of a widely different character. The 
consistency of the soil, its mechanical composition, so to speak, 
appears to be of far more importance than the actual ingredients 
themselves of which it may be composed. For example, we know 
of Vines doing remarkably well on very calcareous soils, on deep 
alluvial loams, on very shallow soils, where the roots penetrate into 
the fissures of the rocks in search of food, yea, on heaps of stone almost, 
as well as in beds of the richest manure. The Vine, however, is 
never found to succeed in wet, clayey, tenacious soils ; a certain 
amount of aeration and porosity of the soil seems to be an absolute 
necessity, with an abundance of water at certain seasons. From these 
general principles, therefore, it will be seen that it is not so very 
difficult to arrive at a knowledge of the kind of soil best suited for 
the cultivation of the Vine, and that the formation of a Vine border 
is a task, the carrying out of which does not require any very great 

Soils. The soil best suited in itself for the growth of the Vine 
is a fibry calcareous yellow or virgin loam. No analysis that can 
be given will convey much information as to the exact constituents 
of the soil that is meant, which is that termed " fibry yellow loam," 
although by every Vine cultivator the designation is well understood. 
It is the top-soil or turf, cut from two to four inches thick, from an 
old pasture or field. It is " fibry," from containing all the fibrous 
roots of the herbage or grass growing on it. It is "yellow," by 
reason of its not having been in cultivation for some considerable 
time, so that it contains little or no organic matter. Soils under 
cultivation, by having organic matter introduced, soon lose this yellow 
and fresh appearance. The term " virgin " loam is sometimes used. 
Indeed, the word " loam^' itself is one of wide meaning, since soils 
that are termed " loamy " range from sand to clay ; thus we have 
what is termed " sandy loam," and also " clayey loam." It is the 
intermediate order or quality of loamy soil that is best suited for the 
Vine, a fibry yellow loam of a calcareous nature, neither too light and 
sandy, nor too heavy and adhesive, but yet possessing some degree 
of holding substance. 

"This soil will breed in rampant health the Vine, 
And gushing with a perfect wealth of wine, 
A mass of Grapes in clusters manifold. " 

The Georgics of Virgil (Blackmore). 


Where such a soil can be procured, it should be cut from an open 
pasture, not from a wood or near the roots of trees, lest pieces of 
wood or of roots remain to decay and cause fungus. It should also be 
cut while it is dry. Many soils are quite spoilt by being handled 
whilst they are in a wet condition. Chop the turves with the grass- 
and fibre roughly to pieces, and to five or six cubic yards of this 
material add one yard of old lime rubbish or broken bricks, a portion 
of charcoal, wood-ashes, or burnt soil, and about two hundred-weight 
of half-inch dried ground bones. These ingredients, well mixed, will 
constitute the main body of soil to be used, but is subject, of course, 
to considerable modification as to proportions, according to the 
quality of the loam that is made use of. If the loam used is of a 
sandy nature, less of the lime rubbish must be used, as the object in 
using this is mainly to give porosity to the soil. If, on the other 
hand, it is of a clayey nature, a much greater proportion of lime 
rubbish will be required. 

In many places it may be very difficult to obtain soil at all approach- 
ing that which is here recommended, but let no one despair of 
cultivating Grapes on that account. Vines will grow, and grow well, 
in soils of a much inferior nature under careful management. We 
recommend that which we consider the best, and it is for the culti- 
vator to get some as near like it as possible. In our own experience 
we have often had to use soils of a very inferior quality old and 
exhausted garden soil, without a vestige of fibre in the formation 
of Vine borders, trusting to the after-management, to top-dressings,, 
and so forth, to make up for the deficiencies. In short, in choosing 
soil for growing Vines, choose the newest and freshest that may be 
obtainable, although, perchance, it may not be, or may not appear so 
rich as some other that has been in cultivation ; yet it will be found 
more enduring, and better suited in every respect, when the other 
ingredients mentioned are added in their proper proportion, for the 
production of Grapes and the general constitution of the Vine. 

Manures. For the growth of Vines nearly all soils require the 
addition of some fertilising ingredients some kind of manure. The 
character of soil most suitable for the Vine, and the mechanical 
construction of the border being settled, the next point for 
consideration is that of enriching the soil ; for where soils are 
poor, the question of manures becomes an important matter. Not very 
many years ago it was the popular belief and custom in the formation 
of a Vine border to bury the carcases of animals such as horses, 
cows, etc. in the border, under the mistaken idea that the roots 
of the Vines revelled in such putrid matter ; a more stupid idea 
never existed. At the present time very different notions prevail in 
regard to manures, and also the making of Vine borders. Some of the 
best cultivators now have their soils analysed with great care, and the 
different ingredients, of which they may be found deficient, added 


with mathematical precision. Analyses are, however, sometimes 
misleading, as the soil may contain elements which, in certain 
conditions, are valueless to the plants. 

In the formation of the Vine border, which is intended to be of a 
permanent nature, the manures that may be used should be of a lasting 
character, so that they will afford support to the Vines as long as 
possible. For top-dressing, immediate action is desirable ; in which 
case the manures should be readily available. 

Manures are of two classes : The organic those of vegetable or 
animal origin ; and the inorganic those of mineral origin. Of organic 
manures, that may be used for Grapes, the principal is that of stable 
or farm-yard manure ; this has generally been recommended for mixing 
with the soil in the formation of the border. It is objectionable, 
however, on this account, that it very rapidly decays, and its influence 
is soon exhausted. Some cultivators notably, Mr. Philip Ladds, 
Bexley Heath use stable manure extensively, and secure heavy crops 
for a few years. As a top-dressing, mixed with the soil or otherwise, 
it is more especially valuable. Bones, as containing phosphate of lime, 
constitute one of the best manurial ingredients for Vines ; they are 
slow to decay, and so continue to give sustenance for many years. The 
best size to use are those which are sold as half-inch ground bones, 
large bones, such as are sometimes used, being of little use. Bone 
meal, dissolved bones, and horn shavings are all valuable ingredients 
of a similar character, presented in a more readily available form, and, 
consequently, more immediately effective. Guano has also been used 
with satisfactory results, but from its powerful nature, requires caution 
in its application. The quantity of ammonia present in guano is its 
chief value, ammonia being the source from which plants derive their 
nitrogen. An excess of nitrogenous manure, it may be pointed out, 
is likely to favour leaf growth rather than the formation of fruit, 
but a proper admixture of nitrogenous and of mineral manures is 
likely to be most advantageous if water be very liberally applied in 
the growing season. 

Of inorganic or chemical manures, and which are also known as 
" artificial " manures, it is only of recent years that they have come 
much into use for Grapes ; some of the most successful growers now 
use them largely, and with beneficial results. From the analysis of the 
Vine, it is ascertained that potash forms one of its chief constituents. 
Ville, the eminent French chemist, in his experiments, proved that 
Grapes could not be grown without potash. Argal, or tartar, it may 
be observed, is procured from the lees of Grapes. It is, therefore, easy 
to arrive at the conclusion that what enters so largely into the consti- 
tution of a plant, must, of necessity, be required by that plant in some 
form or other. 

Potash manures are, therefore, of special value for Vines in all 
cases where the soil is defective of this ingredient ; indirectly, potash 


is applied with other manures, of which it forms a part the value 
of wood ashes as a manure arises from this. For direct application 
to the soil, nitrate of potash, otherwise nitre of saltpetre, in a powdered 
state may be used. Sulphate, or chloride of potash, answers the 
same purpose ; one pound of either of these salts mixed with an 
equal quantity of sulphate of lime, otherwise gypsum, will make an 
excellent top-dressing for a small Vine border ; this should be slightly 
forked into the soil, and well watered. Superphosphate of lime is also 
to be recommended for occasional application, in the same manner, 
during the growing season. The late Mr. Bashford, one of the largest and 
most successful cultivators in Jersey, used a mixture of half-hundred- 
weight of the superphosphate to one hundredweight of nitrate of 
potash, giving one pound of this mixture to the square yard. The 
following mixture has also been found highly efficient : 

Dissolved Bones - - 2 cwt. 

Nitrate of Potash - - 1 

Sulphate of Lime - - 1 

Using two pounds to the square yard, and repeating the application 
at intervals of three or four weeks during the season, according to the 
appearance of the Vines. Many patent manures have been 
recommended, mostly at extremely high prices, and which are mainly 
composed of the ingredients we have enumerated or others of lesser 
importance and value. The best of these prepared manures that has 
come under our notice, and which we have used with very great 
success, is " Thomson's Vine Manure." One hundredweight of this 
manure to every four tons of soil is recommended for making a new 
Vine border, and for top-dressing one pound to the superficial yard 
twice during the season. Much, however, in regard to the application 
of manures, must be governed by the character of soil used ; by 
experience alone can the requisite knowledge be acquired. 

Size of Border. The Vine maybe grown in a very small space, 
and in a very little soil, as is evidenced by the splendid results 
obtained by its cultivation in pots. This pot system may be termed 
" high pressure " cultivation, and, as a consequence, such Vines are 
soon exhausted arid worn out one crop for one season and they are 
done. In larger tubs or boxes they last a little longer ; and so, in 
regular proportions, no doubt, according to the quantity of soil and the 
nourishment supplied (although the ratio may be somewhat difficult 
to estimate correctly), is the vigour of the Vine maintained. If per- 
manent Vines are desired Vines that will continue in full vigour for, 
say, twenty years a border of considerable size must be provided. 
In small narrow borders, with a restricted quantity of soil, success for 
a time may be very great, but that can only be maintained by the 
application of much nourishment in the way of top- dressings, and by 
renewal of the soil, etc. ? which becomes expensive. Many good culti- 
vators form their Vine borders in sections, i.e., three or four feet is 


made up the first season, a similar portion is added the following year,, 
and so on, until the required space is filled. 

A very good rule to go by, and one which gives a very fair propor- 
tion, is that of making the width of the border equal to the width of 
the house itself. Thus, for a house ten feet wide, a border ten feet 
wide would be required ; and for a sixteen feet Vinery a sixteen feet 
border, and so on. The border should in all cases be from two 
to three feet in depth ; it should never be less than two feet, and 
seldom more than three (see fig. 8). A shallow border is apt 
to become too dry, and requires great care and attention as to 
watering, and the keeping up of a proper degree of moisture ; whilst 
a deep border is apt to get soddened, and for the roots to penetrate 
beyond the solar influence. 

The roots of the Vine travel a long way in search of nourishment ; 
there are instances of them having been found from sixty to a hundred 
feet away, so that, although some limit must be fixed for the size of 
the border, a greater extent would, of course, be no disadvantage. 
Indeed, in most of the borders prepared in the ordinary way, where no 
means have been adopted to confine or restrict the passage of the 
roots, the greater portion of these latter have passed through all the 
carefully prepared border into the outlying soil, and are thus beyond 
the control of the cultivator, and outside the influence of his treatment. 
Unless the natural soil of the place be conducive to the well-being 
of the Vine, the roots should always be restricted to the prescribed 
space that has been specially prepared for their well-being. 

Inside v. Outside Borders. Much discussion has taken place as to 
the relative merits or advantages of having the Vine planted inside 
with the roots inside or in borders outside the house. Inside borders 
are specially under the control of the cultivator. The Vines growing 
therein are in a degree as dependent on his careful attention and skill 
as those growing in pots. Every particle of nourishment and moisture 
has to be supplied. It is, therefore, manifest, that in cold, wet, low- 
lying situations, in the hands of the skilful cultivator, there is much 
to be said in favour of " inside borders " for early forcing and for very 
late-keeping Grapes. The disadvantages are these : The great 
amount of labour, etc., required in watering, and the skill and care 
necessary in keeping up the requisite degree of moisture at the roots. 
A scarcity of water, or a little neglect in its application, will ruin the 
crop. On the other hand, outside borders require little attention in 
regard to watering, being exposed to the ordinary rain, they only 
require attention in very dry times. Many amateur cultivators never 
think of watering their Vine borders, although frequently they 
would be greatly benefited thereby. For the general crop of Grapes, 
therefore, and for all ordinary cultivation where superior skill and 
constant care cannot be administered, "outside" borders are far 
preferable to " inside " ones. 


A very common practice is to form the borders both outside and 
inside, the front wall being erected on arches, so that the Vines which 
are planted inside may have liberty for their roots to go either way. 
It has often been noticed in cases of this sort how great a per centage 
of the roots are to be found in the outside border, that being generally 
the moister of the two. It is a fact worthy of notice that the greater 
portion of the ravages committed by the Phylloxera in this country 
have been in dry inside borders, the insect having seldom if ever 
been found in the more moist soil outside. This, if not testimony 
exactly in favour of outside borders, at least points to the suppres- 
sion of this great pest, the Phylloxera, by the application of water. 

Drainage. This is one of the most important operations in the 
formation of a Vine border, and one that, in some situations, entails a 
considerable amount of expense and trouble to render it efficient. It 
is a point that always must be taken into consideration in selecting 
the position for a Vinery, for if the soil cannot be drained freely and 
easily, the site is not a proper one for the cultivation of Grapes. Since 
Vines will not succeed well in a low, damp situation, it is best to 
choose for them a rather high position, though not necessarily an 
exposed one ; on a gentle incline, it may be, where the work of 
drainage will be almost accomplished. Many gardens with gravelly 
subsoil, even if on the level, are well drained naturally, and so require 
little preparation ; but it is not well to trust much to the natural 
conditions, though they are apparently favourable. It is better to 
take all ordinary precautions at the first, rather than to run any risks, 
and then, after several years of loss and disappointment, to have all 
the work to do over again. 

In every case, therefore, a considerable amount of draining material 
should be placed over the whole surface of the bed of the border say 
from one to two feet or more in depth, according to the breadth of the 
border, the nature of the subsoil, etc. At the back of the border, for 
example, we should place a depth of two feet of drainage, allowing 
it a slope to eighteen inches at the front, where a drain twelve inches 
lower still should be formed, to carry off all superabundant moisture. 
The best material, generally very accessible, for the drainage of a Vine 
border will be found in old brick and lime rubbish, the rougher and 
larger pieces being placed at the bottom, finishing with the finer on 
the top, these forming a barrier which prevents the soil being washed 
down amongst the drainage materials. 

In cold, wet, clayey soils, it is advisable to place a layer of concrete 
over the bottom of the border. This will prevent the damp from 
rising, and cut off any possibility of the roots descending ; but even 
in this case it is still advisable to place over the concrete the bed of 
brick-rubbish, as already recommended. The beneficial effect of 
drainage is not alone that of drawing off the superfluous moisture, but 
the consequence of this being done is to raise the temperature of the 



soil. A well-drained border is not only drier, but warmer by a good 
many degrees than a water-logged or undrained one. No better 
illustration than this can be given of the immense importance of 
thorough drainage for the roots of the Vine. 

Raised or Terraced Borders. In low-lying situations, the plan 
of raising the borders above the level of the surrounding soil is 
greatly to be recommended. The border thus forms, as it were, a 
sort of raised terrace, the height of which may, and will, vary, of 
course, according to circumstances ; but it need seldom exceed the 
intended depth of prepared soil, the drainage material commencing 
at the natural or surface-level of the ground. A border raised in 
this way will be comparatively warm and dry, by reason of its 

In the formation of a Vine border, it will thus be seen that every 
contingency ought to be taken into consideration, not only the 
position or situation, but also the level of the border itself. The 
amount of excavation necessary in making up the border will be 
determined by its depth, measuring from the surface-level; thus a 
border raised two and a half feet requires only to be excavated to a 
depth sufficient to hold the drainage. It is a piece of folly often 
perpetrated to dig for the Vine border a large deep hole, which it is 
impossible to drain, and which, therefore, when filled with rubble, 
becomes a great well or cess-pool for the drainage of the surrounding 
ground. Than this, nothing could be much more injurious to the 
roots of Vines. The lowest part of the foundation of the border 
should be provided with a thoroughly efficient drain. 

Heated Borders. VineJ;borders may be heated artificially in a 
variety of ways. For example, by their formation over heated tanks, 
or by hot-water pipes placed in various positions, etc., on which we 
need not here enlarge. For exceptional cases, where extra early 
forcing is required, some means of this sort may be adopted with 
advantage ; but experience has proved that, in a general way, but 
little advantage is secured as compared with the increased cost of 
the heating, besides which they are liable to become over dry, and, 
in this way, hurtful to the Vine roots. 

Aerated Borders are so called through having a series of drain- 
tiles or pipes, communicating with the outer air, placed underneath 
the soil amongst the drainage material. These serve, to some 
extent, to warm the border, and to sweeten and purify the materials 
of which it is composed. There can be little doubt that considerable 
benefit is derived by the adoption of some means of this sort in low- 
lying situations. It is, in truth, but an elaborate system of 
drainage, excellent in theory, and efficient when well carried out. but 
often failing in action, and for general purposes not requisite. 

Covering. It has long been customary, and so has come to be 
considered necessary, that Vine borders should be at all times covered 


with some fermenting material. It is, however, not necessary in 
ordinary cases. The beneficial effects of the frost on the soil is well 
known, and it is good practice to expose the soil of a Vine border 
to its action as much as possible. For early forcing, a good covering 
of dry leaves, or a continued supply of hot fermenting manure and 
leaves is very beneficial, not only from its warding off cold rains, etc., 
but from its keeping up the temperature of the border. For late and 
general purposes, the border is better exposed to the full and free 
action of the weather. 

Mulching. This is very necessary, not only as a means of enrich- 
ment of the soil, but also for the prevention of evaporation, whereby 
a greater and more constant degree of humidity is maintained. 
Therefore, as soon as the Vines get into full leaf, a good dressing of 
several inches of the best manure attainable should be applied, and 
this should be renewed from time to time as required, until the 
Grapes begin to colour. This dressing or mulching of manure induces 
the emission of numerous surface-roots, and in poor soils is the chief 
and best mode of supplying sustenance to the Vines. 

Watering. A great deal depends on the efficient manner in which 
this operation is carried out. More Vines are ruined through want of 
water, perhaps, than from any other cause. The quantity of water 
which Vines require in well-drained borders is astonishing. They can 
scarcely receive an over-supply during the growing season. Inside 
borders require the most attention in respect to watering. Before the 
Vines are started into growth, every particle of soil should be 
thoroughly saturated, and from the time they come into leaf until the 
ripening of the fruit, a frequent supply of manure- water should be 
given. Outside as well as inside borders should receive constant 
attention as to watering during the summer, but no special rules as to 
time or quantity can be given, so much depending upon the nature of 
the soil used, its composition and drainage. When the fruit is ripe, a 
somewhat drier condition should be maintained, but it is not advisable 
to allow the soil to become dry even then. 

Renovating Old or Exhausted Borders. Old and apparently worn- 
out Vines are sometimes restored to comparative vigour by the 
removal of the effete soil, and the supply of fresh material to the 
roots ; it is often advisable to do this. The total renewal of a Vinery 
Vines, border, and all, is not at all times expedient excepting in 
large establishments, where other houses may supply the temporary 
want ; it means the loss of a few years' crop of fruit, and this is rather 
a serious matter. It is the fear of this loss, however little it may be, 
that often prevents the adoption of any adequate means of improve- 
ment ; but be it known to all concerned, that by careful and judicious 
management, Vine-borders may be renewed entirely without any loss 
whatever. If this fact were fully recognised, we might, as a conse- 
quence, see fewer poor Grapes. One difficulty in the way of 


accomplishing this renewal, is to have ripe the fruit the Vines may be 
producing in time for the operation to be performed sufficiently early 
to get the roots in action in the new soil before the end of the season. 
This is the great end to be achieved. The mere renewal of the soil 
is easily performed. 

As soon, therefore, as the fruit may be cut, whilst the leaves are yet 
fresh and green, say, about the end of July, commence by clearing 
away the old soil, tracing out carefully all the roots that may be 
found ; these must be shaded and protected from the sun, and, 
moreover, frequently syringed to keep them moist. Then make up 
the border with fresh soil as already recommended, and carefully 
replant the roots as soon as possible. Much depends upon the time 
taken up in doing this, as the Vine roots suffer much if kept long out 
of the soil ; but if proper care be taken, a few days under these 
conditions will not cause them material injury. 

If the roots have been much interfered with, it is necessary to 
completely shade the Vines at this time, and to maintain about them 
a close, warm, genial atmosphere ; that is, the atmosphere of the 
house must be completely saturated with moisture and the Vines 
frequently syringed, so as to cause them to commence active growth 
again. When this is accomplished, the roots will also be getting 
established, and after about a month or so, the ordinary treatment 
may be resumed. 

Another mode of renewal often adopted, where the roots exist 
partly in the inside and partly in the outside border, is to entirely 
renew the inside one season, and the outside the following. The roots 
in this case may be considerably shortened. Some daring cultivators 
will also partially renew a Vine border by boldly clearing away 
a certain portion, roots and all, and refilling the space with fresh soil. 

The commonest practice, however, is to clear away as much of the 
top-soil as possible, laying the roots bare, and then adding fresh soil. 
This, in a lesser degree, would be called Top-dressing. The 
top-dressing material should consist of good loam, and be rather 
richer than that recommended for the formation of the border (see 
Manures, p. 21). Any depth of this may be applied, and if properly 
attended to in regard to moisture, the roots will soon permeate 
through the entire mass, and great benefit will be derived by the 
Vines. All these partial renewals may be effected during the autumn, 
or when the Vines may be said to be at rest. 




IS regards Structures or Houses for the cultivation of Grapes, the 
greatest latitude may be allowed. Vines are most accommo- 
dating in this respect, and will grow in structures of any form or 
size that either convenience or fancy may dictate, provided the 
atmospheric conditions aie made suitable. It is not to be assumed, 
however, that certain structures are not better adapted for their 
respective requirements than others. It is the little differences or 
deviations from this or that line that lead on to failure or success, as 
the case may be. The two extremes are seldom far apart. The 
conditions that may prove satisfactory in one sense, do not always 
avail in others. The mere growth of the Vine itself is one thing, 
whilst the production of fruit, early or late, and its proper maturation 
and conservation, are totally distinct matters. A house which may 
be very suitable for early Grapes, may be unsuitable for late crops, and 
vice versa. It is very wonderful to notice the great crops of Grapes, 
and these of fine quality too, that are sometimes produced in houses or 
Vineries that can scarcely be called suitable, and which should never 
be taken as models to be followed in the erection of Vine-houses. A 
great many blunders are committed in this way : peradventure, 
through pure accident it may be, a certain thing is a success ; it is 
thereupon copied, with all its faults, and failure is the common and 
natural result. 

Vineries, that is to say, the structures set apart for Vine culture, are 
of three classes : 

1. Early Vineries, for the production of early or forced Grapes. 

2. General-crop Vineries, including all unheated houses. 

3. Late Vineries, for the production and proper keeping of Grapes 
till late in the season. 

A Vinery specially designed for one of these purposes may be very 
unsuitable for the others ; special arrangements are required in each 
case, but we can here do little more than glance at general principles, 
lea ving the details to be fitted to each particular case. 

The annexed illustration, fig. 8, in which the construction of the 
border is illustrated, represents what is termed a lean-to Vinery that 
is, a house leaning to or against a wall. This is the oldest, simplest, 
and cheapest style oi house that can be erected, advantage being 
generally taken of some already existing wall against which to place it. 


Of ______ v.\ 




The Vines in this case are planted along the front, and the rods 
trained up under the roof. A second set may also be planted against 
the back wall, and these will produce good fruit for a time, or so long 
as they are not shaded by the others. 

Lean-to houses are generally erected to face the south, so that the 
full benefit of the sun's rays may be secured. This position for early 
houses is a great consideration, but for later houses it is of less conse- 
quence, as good black Grapes may be grown in houses having a due 
north aspect. For early forcing, the lean-to Vinery is the most 



approved. It is naturally warmer, the back wall affording con- 
siderable shelter, and on this account it is the best adapted for cold or 
exposed localities. Fig. 8 represents a house about fifteen feet in 
width, with a roof at an angle of forty degrees. This may be made 
much more acute, and the whole modified as may seem desirable ; but 
very steep lean-to Vineries are extremely sensitive to a too rapid rise 
of temperature, and require great care in ventilation, to prevent the 
consequent scorching of the Vines. 

Fig. 9 represents what is generally termed a three-quarters span or 
hipped-roof Vinery. It is a combination of the lean-to and span-roof, 
and unites to a great degree the advantages of both styles. For 
general purposes there is no better form of Vinery than this, and it 
admits of easy and thorough ventilation by the short lights at the 
back, without in anyway interfering with the front roof of the house. 
The Vines in a house of this sort are planted as recommended for the 
lean-to Vinery, and the best aspect is as nearly due south as possible. 
For Muscat Grapes, requiring a high temperature and plenty of 
sunlight, the three-quarters span is greatly to be recommended, as also 
for late-keeping Grapes. 

We also give representations, figs. 10 and 11, of a span-roofed 
Vinery, so called from the roof forming a span or arch. This style of 
structure has become extremely popular since the days of cheap hot- 
houses. It is the most elegant and ornamental, especially in isolated 
positions. There is no other form of Vinery nearly so pretty, or one 
which affords so much roof space for the development of the Vines. 
For the general cultivation of Grapes, the span-roof Vinery answers 
extremely .well. The whole being glass, the amount of air and light 
admitted is very great, and this is decidedly beneficial to the 
Vines at certain seasons. The disadvantages are, that having so large 
a glazed or cooling surface exposed, it is much more difficult to main- 
tain a high or regular temperature in a house of this form. On this 
account span-roofed houses are not so well adapted for early forcing or 
for the cultivation of Muscat Grapes. 

In regard to position or aspect, the rule for span-roofed houses is 
the reverse of that which has been recommended for the other 
forms. The best and greatest results are here obtained by placing 
the ridge due north and south, the one side thus facing east, and 
receiving the full benefit of the morning sun, whilst the other being 
due west, receives in a like manner the afternoon sun, the direct 
or mid-day sun striking somewhat obliquely on both sides. Thus 
both sides receive about an equal amount, and a much longer 
continuance of the vertical rays of the sun than could be secured by 
adopting any other position. In the case of a span-roofed house 
placed so that one side faces south, the other must be due north, 
and under such circumstances the Vines on the south side receive 
all the benefit of the solar rays, and those on the north are 






consequently shaded and Vines never do well in shade. For more 
northern or colder localities, a more acute or steeper angle of roof is 

The trellis provided for the training of the Vines should be of 
galvanised wire, and fixed not less than eighteen inches from the 
glass, if the height of the house will permit. We prefer straining the 
wires longitudinally from one end to the other, at about ten inches 
apart, long eyes being fixed in the rafters to suspend them. For 
Vines against the walls, the wires should be placed at a distance 
from the wall of about six inches. 

The ground-plan (fig. 11) shows the Vines planted at four feet apart 
on each side, and indicates the position of the pipes, trellis, paths, 
etc., in a span -roofed Vinery. 



f VINERY is not complete until it be efficiently heated. Heat 
i.e., artificial heat being therefore requisite for the higher 
cultivation of the Grape Vine, it becomes necessary to take 
into consideration the best means of securing its proper 
application. r^uf.ji 

Artificial heat, in distinction from solar heat, may be derived from 
various sources, and applied in various ways. For Vines and 
Vineries it is not necessary to allude to other sources than the 
following : 

1. Flues. This, which is the oldest system, is still to be met 
with in some old gardens, but is now seldom introduced. Flues are 
objectionable on account of the great amount of space they occupy in 
the interior of the house, and also on account of the very arid heat 
they supply, necessitating extreme care in maintaining a sufficiently 
moist atmosphere, and in preventing scorching, and the intrusion of 
red spider and other insects. 

2. Hot Water. This is the system almost universally adopted at 
the present day for horticultural purposes, and is superior to all 
others. The only questions that may arise in regard to hot-water 
heating are the position of the piping, and the extent or quantity 
required for particular purposes. As to -the position of the piping, if 
we take into consideration that the heat is obtained from the pipes by 
radiation, and that heated air naturally moves upwards, it is at once 
apparent that the heating material, or piping, should be placed at the 
lowest and coldest part of the house. The practice, therefore, is to fix 
the piping as shown in the several sections of Vineries, figs, 8, 9, and 
10, viz., at the front, and near to the ventilators. 

As to the extent or quantity of piping, this is, and must be, 
regulated by the special requirements in each case. An extra, rather 
than under, supply is preferable at all times, so as to avoid keeping 
the pipes at a very high temperature, which is injurious to vegetation. 

As regards boilers, according to our experience, for general use, 
the Terminal-end Saddle Boiler is one of the simplest and most 
efficient, and will answer all practical purposes. (See Chap. xxii.). 




INES maybe planted at any season of the year, provided all 
the requisite conditions are fulfilled. The usual practice is to 
plant the ripened canes of the previous season's growth, such 
as that shown in fig. 12, which is a Pot- Vine, termed a "Planter." 
In the majority of cases these have to be received from the nursery at 
the end of the season, and the earlier they are obtained and planted 
the better. October is a very good period for planting.. Vines 
planted then commence a little root-action, and get. to some extent, 
established before the spring. 

It is not advisable to plant in the mid-winter months, especially 
in outside borders, as the soil is then very cold and wet. If Vines 
cannot be planted before November it is far better to defer the 
operation till the spring, say at the end of January or beginning of 
February ; later in the season they will be commencing to grow, and 
cannot then, with safety, be pruned or cut as may be required. 

In planting young Vines from pots the soil should be shaken away,, 
and the roots spread out fully, and laid as near the surface as may be 
possible ; the soil should then be filled in, made firm, and, if necessary, 
watered in the usual way. 

Another method, which is greatly to be recommended, is to plant 
the young growing Vines that have been raised from eyes during the 
same season. For those who have the convenience to raise their own 
Vines, and to plant them out in the month of May or during any of 
the summer months, there is a gain of, at least, one year's growth. 
This, of course, can only be practised where the Vines are planted 
in the inside borders. The difficulty of carriage, and the consequent 
damage to the tender-growing plants prevents the nurserymen from 
supplying Vines for planting in this condition to any extent, other- 
wise it would be largely adopted. We have planted Vines in May 
from six-inch pots that have made rods thirty feet in length the same 
season, and formed stems of corresponding thickness. We have also 
planted in June and July with nearly equal success. In planting 
these growing Vines from pots the ball need not be broken, as the 
roots have not yet become matted, and consequently, if the soil is 
pressed gently around them, and well watered, there is no check ; 
and growth commences immediately. 

Mr. Thomson, when at Dalkeith, adopted the plan of raising Vines 


from eyes struck in square pieces of turf instead of pots ; in these the 
Vines rooted, and were placed in the border without disturbance a 
very simple and efficient method. 

Distance apart at which to Plant. This depends, to a great 
extent, on the style or mode of training to be adopted. If we here 
consider the rods or stems as separate plants we must then allow space 
between the stems for the proper development or extension of the side 
or bearing shoots, and as these extend from two to two feet six inches 
on either side, it follows that a space of from four to five feet is 
required. Some of the best cultivators have the stems seven feet 
apart, being of opinion that more space and light are necessary for 
these Grapes. For permanent Vines the distance of five feet is not 
at all too much, although frequently they are planted much closer. 
Growers for market frequently plant at from two to two feet six 
inches apart, but such Vines are only of a temporary character. Other 
cultivators plant what are termed the permanent Vines at five feet 
apart, and introduce supernumerary plants between them to produce 
a crop while the permanent Vines are growing up, when they are 
cnt out, and their space occupied by the latter. Some of the market- 
growers are now trying the plan of planting the Vines inside the 
houses in lines, at from three to five feet apart, and training them to 
upright poles, eight to ten feet in height, as in some Vineyards, and 
as practised with Tomatos. The objection to this system is the one 
plant shading the other, so that the inner and lower buds do not get 
properly ripened, and soon become enfeebled. 




Management is here meant all that relates to the maintenance, 
in the houses, of those atmospheric conditions that may be 
requisite for the proper cultivation or development of the Vines 
or their fruit. Requirements vary so much that it would be simply 
impossible, even were it desirable, to lay down hard and fast rules to 
be followed in every case ; much, very much, must always be left to 
the discretion of the cultivator. 

Forcing . Since the introduction of cheap glass, orchard houses, 
ground vineries, and other unheated structures for the cultivation of 
the Vine, this term, at one time very expressive of a definite condition, 
has become nearly obsolete. Any means that may be adopted for the 
forwarding of the growth of a plant to a greater extent than would 
take place naturally, may be termed forcing. Heat is the motive 
power. The Vine growing in an unheated orchard house that is, 
not heated artificially is forced by solar heat to a certain degree. 
Some Vines are forced in spring, to induce them to commence growth 
early ; others require forcing in autumn, to ripen their fruit. 

Vines may be forced into growth and bear fruit at any season of 
the year, provided provided always that the wood is properly 
ripened. Early-forced Vines of one season force more easily the fol- 
lowing year, and established Vines always more easily than joung 
ones ; indeed, young Vines, excepting it may be pot plants, should 
not be hard forced. 

To secure early Grapes, say in April, the Vines should be started 
into growth in November. The period of time required from the 
commencement of growth to the ripening of the fruit is, for the Black 
Hamburgh, about five months. Thus, Vines started in March should 
have fruit ripe in July, and those coming naturally into growth by the 
end of March, in August and September. The Muscat of Alexandria, 
Gros Colman, Alicante, Lady Downe's Seedling, and other late Grapes, 
require nearly six months to ripen and finish properly. 

All Vines should be started sufficiently early to have the fruit ripe 
by the early part of September ; Grapes ripened later than Sep- 
tember require a great amount of firing to .finish them, and do not 
keep well through the winter. The Grapes ripened in September are 
the latest to arrive at full maturity. See chap. xiii. 

If, say on January 1st, we take as an example a Vinery from which 


ripe Grapes are required to be cut in the month of June, the manage- 
ment or treatment necessary to secure this end may be stated in 
general terms, as follows : 

1. Temperature. At the commencement, a night temperature of 
about 60 will be sufficient until the Vines have started to grow. The 
heat should be raised gradually to 70 by the time they come into 
flower. When the Grapes are fairly set, a lower temperature may 
be maintained until after the stoning period, when, if necessary, a 
rise of a few degrees may be allowed. When the Grapes commence 
colouring a lower temperature may be maintained, but fire-heat is very 
frequently required in order to maintain a bracing atmosphere. 

For day temperatures a rise of 5 by fire heat may be allowed in 
dull cold weather, and of 10 or more, if by sun-heat, up to 80 or 90, 
as the season advances. In very cold weather, however, it is better 
to have a lower temperature than to maintain a high one by over- 
heated pipes. 

2. Ventilation, or Air-giving. The object sought to be obtained 
by ventilation is not merely the maintenance or regulation of the tem- 
perature, but also the admission of fresh air, which is a most important 
factor in the well-being of the Vines. The night temperatures are 
mostly regulated by the amount of firing or heat applied, but the day 
temperature, or amount of sun-heat, is regulated by ventilation. In 
Vineries a little air should be admitted by the top ventilators early in 
the morning, or as soon as it may be observed that the temperature 
has risen or is rising above the required point, and this air should be 
gradually increased as the day and the temperature advances, and 
should also be reduced in a like manner in the afternoon, endeavour- 
ing, if possible, to close early enough to secure a slight rise in the 
temperature after doing so. We prefer closing early at all times, and 
" bottling up," as it were, the sun's warm rays, to the rigid rule of 
keeping to a given temperature, and the consequent early application 
of fire-heat for its maintenance. As the Grapes commence colouring, 
air must be given freely both by day and by night, on both sides of 
the house, etc., for the admission of brisk fresh air. 

Moisture. This, in its relation to the atmosphere, is of the greatest 
importance to the healthy progress of the Vine, and demands special 
attention. A close moist atmosphere is necessary to induce the buds 
to break freely, and afterwards it is necessary to assist in supplying 
nutriment to the Vines through the leaves. A very great proportion 
of the nutriment to plants is absorbed through the leaves. Again, 
moisture is necessary to prevent the destruction of the leaves by red 
spider and other insects. 

From the commencement, then, a moist atmosphere must be main- 
tained, and the higher the temperature the greater the evaporation, 
and the greater the amount of moisture required. It is difficult to 
supply too much. When the Vines are started they should be 


syringed regularly several times a day, especially if the weather be 
bright and warm, beginning as soon as it may be noted that the 
temperature is rising, and so on, varying as to time according to 
season, etc. This treatment may be continued before the Vines come 
into flower, at which period a somewhat drier atmosphere should be 
maintained until the Grapes are fairly set. Syringing of the Vine 
must from this time be discontinued, as, on account of the lime 
present in almost all waters, the fruit and foliage become spotted and 
soiled by its use. Young Vines on which there is no fruit may, 
however, be syringed with advantage ; every portion of the house and 
border should be freely syringed at all times, and the atmosphere thus 
kept well charged with moisture. 

When the Grapes are colouring, a somewhat drier atmosphere is 
required, and by the time they are ripe, the atmosphere should be 
kept as dry and bracing as possible. After the Grapes are cut, if it 
be during the growing season, the syringe should be again freely 
employed to thoroughly cleanse the leaves and wood, arid its use 
continued until they ripen off thoroughly. 

All Vines in Vineries, at whatever period they may be started into 
growth, will require treatment or management on principles somewhat 
similar to those here laid down. It has been the custom of most 
writers on the cultivation of the Vine to give tables of temperature 
for both day and night, to be followed strictly during the season, but 
never having seen or derived any benefit from the use of such tables, 
we prefer to state general principles that may be understood and 
followed out by everyone as circumstances may admit. 




'HE Vine is a free-growing long-lived plant. When young and 
I vigorous, it grows very rapidly, the growth of a single season 
often attaining a length of from thirty to forty feet, or more. 
In its natural state the Vine is of a climbing character, sustaining 
itself by its tendrils, so that in its cultivated condition it has to be 
supported. It requires, in fact, a certain amount of training, that is, 
the fastening up of the shoots in some particular way, and of pruning 
to prevent excessive and confused extension. 

There are various methods adopted in training the Vine, as being 
adapted for some particular place or purpose. We have, first, that 
adopted in the Vineyards or Vine-growing countries in the open air, 
where the young or fruit-bearing shoots are tied to upright poles, 
some six or eight feet in length, which mode of training scarcely 
comes within our province here. Then we have that adopted and 
adapted for Vines against walls, either in the open air or under glass; 
and we have training against trellises under glass. In the training of 
Vines against walls, in the open air chiefly, it has generally been the 
habit to introduce a more fanciful form than when they are grown 
against trellis-work. There can be no particular reason for this, 
because the mode adopted in the one case must be equally suitable in 
the other. 

In a broad sense, we have in practice but two modes of Training 
and Pruning the Vine, viz., the Long-rod system, and the Spur 
system ; some may add a third, viz., the extension system, which is 
a modification or an enlargement of both the others. Each of these 
modes is subject to all sorts of modifications, as fancy may dictate, or 
circumstances may allow ; but before proceeding further with their 
explanation, it is necessary to say a word or two on pruning generally, 
apart from training. 

To prune is to cut off, or otherwise sever, a shoot or branch from a 
tree or plant. Now, we prune our Vines for various reasons, as 
follows : 

1. We prune for the purpose of attaining greater vigour in the 
plant ; for by cutting off a portion of a shoot or branch, the forces that 
would have been diffused over the whole are concentrated on the 
part that is left, and hence we get a stronger growth. 

2. We prune for the purpose of training or securing some desired 
form ; we prune and cut our Vines according as we desire to train 
them. Be it understood that the shoots of the present season are 


produced from the matured buds on the shoots of the previous year, 
and that each is capable of producing a shoot according to the vigour 
of the Vine, or to the mode or manner of the pruning, 

3. We prune our Vines to the end that we may obtain fruit. This 
is an obvious reason, though the mere act of pruning can only to a 
very limited extent assist in the production of the fruit. By pruning 
we take away many of the fruit-producing parts, but we concentrate 
force or power on the others. The more complete the maturity of the 
buds, the more likely is fruit to be produced, so that in pruning for 
fruit, if the wood is badly ripened, it is not advisable to prune too 
closely. Well-ripened Vines will, however, produce fruit from 
nearly every bud, so that the danger of losing a crop by too close 
pruning is not very great. 

In order that these remarks may be more clearly understood, we 
shall make use of some illustrations of the various operations. We 
begin, therefore, with a young Vine, fig. 12, as about to be planted. 
It is a plant that has been grown from an eye the previous year (see 
chap. xv. Pot-culture), and is, therefore, about twelve months old 
a thin spindly thing it may be, of from three to four feet long, ready 
to be planted during the early winter or spring months. 

The first question that is generally asked by the uninitiated is this : 
" To what length shall I prune my newly-planted Vines 1 " Our 
general answer is, " Cut them as low down as you can." When 
planted in such a position that the whole cane right down to the 
ground is fully exposed to the solar influences, cut it down, as shown 
by the figure, to within three or four inches of the ground. It is no 
matter what the strength of the plant may be ; the lower it is cut 
down, the stronger it will grow, and the better foundation it will make 
for the future. There are situations, however, where the young Vines 
cannot be cut down so low as this, namely, when planted against the 
low, front wall of a house, to be trained up to the rafters, either 
outside or inside. Here there is frequently three feet or more of the 
stem comparatively in the shade or in the cold. For this purpose 
stronger Vines are required, and the rule for pruning should be to cut 
them at from two to three eyes above the level of the wall plate, i.e., 
above the line of light. A very good rule is to prune, say to the 
lowest point, whence the foliage produced can have the full influences 
of light and air. Once fairly started, young Vines are all the better, 
for the first summer, if allowed to grow and ramble pretty freely, 
with as lit tie checking and stopping as possible. The more leaves and 
shoots developed the more roots produced, and the stronger the 
foundation laid for the future. 

Spur Pruning. The spur system of pruning is the method most 
generally adopted in this country. The practice has generally been 
to confine the Vine to a single stem ; some growers, however, prefer 
to plant at a wider distance apart, and take up two stems in the form 



of the letters (J and | thus, Y, or even three or more as the case may 
be. As this is, however, a mere matter of training, and the treatment 
as regards pruning required for the one kind of stem is exactly the 


same as for the other, our remarks, although descriptive of the treat- 
ment of the one stem only, may be taken as applicable to any number. 



In fig. 1 3, which represents a portion of the stem of a Vine, at the 
end of its first year's growth after being planted out, preparatory to 
pruning, A represents the upper portion of the stem of fig. 12, left at 


the first pruning ; B B is the new wood, the growth of the second 
year; c is what is termed a " heel," left at the previous pruning, it 


being always advisable to cut a little in advance of the eye rather than, 
close to it ; D is the first side shoot, and was produced from the second 
bud left at the previous pruning. This, when pruned off as the 
cross-line indicates, shows the formation of the first spur, or it may 
be left to form the second stem where two steins are required ; E is a 
summer lateral shoot, i.e., a side shoot formed from another shoot or 
stem of the same season's growth ; F may be considered as the 
figurative point to which stem B may be cut back. 

To give a practical explanation of our meaning, however, we will 
suppose the Vine to be cut down, as in fig. 12, to say six or twelve 
inches from the ground, and that it was grown well that is, 
it has made a leading shoot from fifteen to twenty feet long, and of 
corresponding thickness. In the first place, if a side shoot like D has 
been formed, this should be pruned off, as marked, to form the first 
spur, if it is considered desirable or necessary to have a spur so low. 
Far better and stronger spurs are, however, produced from the stems 
formed after being planted out ; and this is an additional reason for 
cutting low down ; the stem is stronger and the buds are larger, and 
so produce better shoots, which form better permanent spurs. In the 
second place, prune off all summer lateral shoots, such as E, quite 
close ; and then, in the third place, we have to consider the length of 
the main stem B to be left, or where the point F shall be. This point 
has chiefly to be determined by the strength of the stem or the vigour 
of the plant. To the amateur Vine-cultivator it appears a great pity 
to cut away so much of the fine wood which has been formed ; it 
seems a needless waste first to grow it and then cut it away, when it 
is known that in every bud there is a bunch of fruit. The tempta- 
tion is great to leave a good long rod on the young Vine ; and so in 
many cases we may trace the commencement of their u road to ruin." 

In -the Spur system of training it is of paramount importance that 
all the permanent spurs should be formed of equal strength. So in 
the pruning or shortening of the main stem, the point to be kept in 
view is the power of the Vine to form good shoots from all the buds 
left. It should be pruned to this point, neither longer nor shorter 
If we leave a long rod, say of twenty buds, the four or five top buds 
will break strongly, and the lower portion very weakly, or not at all ; 
and* the result will be a Vine stem without shoots, unsightly and 
unfruitful. Had these been pruned to half the length, all the buds 
would have broken or put forth shoots of equal strength, regularity, 
and fruitfulness. It is difficult to define exactly the length of rod to 
be left. A healthy Vine with a stem, say the thickness of one's 
thumb or finger, may be allowed some four or five feet of new stem, 
or even more. It is better, however, to err on the side of severity in 
pruning the main stems than the reverse. The one is overcome in a 
few seasons ; the other is a permanent loss and disfigurement to the 


Supposing the Vine to have completed its second season's growth, 
and to be in good order for pruning, if it has grown well there should 
be some four or five shoots on each side of the main rod or stem left at 
the previous pruning, with a corresponding continuation of the main 
stem itself, to ten or twenty feet or more, 
as may have been allowed. These side- 
shoots have then to be pruned ; by doing 
this we form the first spurs, and according 
as we do this, do we lay the foundation 
of good or bad spurs for the future. It is 
well, therefore, if only on this account, to 
give a little care and attention to the 
matter at the present stage. As already 
stated, with well-ripened wood there need 
be little fear of losing a crop of fruit 
through too close pruning. The bud or 
eye situate close to the stem, although 
not so large and conspicuous as the others 
further off, will produce as strong a shoot 
as they, and as good a bunch of fruit, 
or nearly so. Besides, close pruning has 
the advantage, especially in the present 
case of first pruning, of keeping the spurs 
close at home. Fig. 14 may be taken to 
represent a portion of the main stem of 
the second season's growth, showing the 
formation of the first spur. A is a spur 
properly pruned and formed ; B is a spur 
of far more pretending appearance, such 
as the timid and uninitiated always leave ; 
it is, however, wrong, and should be cut 
off, as shown by the cross line, a b. 
Some cultivators recommend leaving long 
spurs at pruning time, so as to have a 
choice of buds at disbudding - time, 
intending then to rub off the front one ; 
but this system is pernicious, as the upper 
bud is sure to break the stronger, and to 
allow it to break, and then to rub it off, 
is a sheer waste of force. 

As regards the main stem or rod,. 
the same considerations as to its pruning 
have to be applied as in the previous 
season. Cut off all the summer lateral 
shoots ; do not depend on any of them 
for permanent work Then cut the stem 

Fiff u y v 

ofs! ' 



SEASON, from properly pruned spur. 

SEASON, from improperly pruned spur. 



back to, say four or six feet of new wood, according to its strength. 
A good stem should be about the thickness of one's thumb, and a 
weak one of the thickness of an ordinary blacklead pencil. If the 
main stem resembles the latter, 
it should be cut back quite 
close, as it would be too weak 
to produce good side-spurs, or 
to bear good fruit. 

Fig. 15 represents the growth 
from spur A of fig. 14 ; and 
fig. 16 that of the spur B, at the 
end of the third season, The 
properly - pruned spur A has 
produced the properly- placed 
shoot &, which should be 
pruned the next season, as 
shown by the cross line ; thus 
forming a close compact spur, 
which may, subsequently, be 
pruned for years after in the 
same manner, with little appar- 
ent enlargement. The impro- 
perly-pruned spur B of the 
previous season, it will be 
observed, has become much 
worse now. The shoot pro- 
duced is equal to that of A, 
but the front bud having been 
left, the spur has become not 
only unsightly but permanently 
weakened. It should have been 
pruned at the lower cross line, 
but now that cannot well be 
done ; that is, to continue the 
proper system of pruning, the 
cut must be made at the cross 
line c d. This shows clearly 
to what an indefinite length 
the spurs pruned in this loose 
manner would attain in a few 

(Spur-pruned (reduced). 

years' time. In the course of 

eight or ten years each spur -^ 

would be from four to six inches 

in length ; and this on each side of the Vine, which would give twelve 

inches of wasted space, besides the extra amount of energy annually 

expended by the plant in producing sap to clothe these long 


Fig. 18. TEN-YEAR-OLD VINE STEM, Spur-pruned (much reduced). 

ft y^x. 




rugged spurs. For the well-being of the Vine, therefore, in an 
economical point of view, no less than for its neater appearance, it is 
better to prune so as to have short close spurs. 

The condition of the pruned Vine in succeeding years may now be 
briefly noticed. Fig. 17 may be taken to represent properly-pruned 
spurs of three years' formation, and fig. 18 similarly well-pruned 
spurs at the end of ten years. Either may, indeed, by careful and 
rigid pruning, be kept within very much less compass ; but the 
figures we have given may be taken to represent ordinarily well- 
formed spurs. The stem of a well-grown Vine at ten years of age 
should be from one to three inches in diameter, more or less, according 
to the length of the rod ; and a Vine of this age would have for 
some time attained its full limits as to length, so that the pruning 
to be. practised would be simply a repetition of what has been 

One important point, in regard to the spur system of pruning, is 
that of the distance between the spurs. They are generally retained 
too- closely. This is, in some measure, owing to each bud being 
allowed to form a shoot, irrespective of its distance from the other 
shoots. It is necessary to sacrifice some of the shoots in order the- 
better to develop others. The leaves of a Vine are large, so that the 
side shoots should not be less than from eighteen to twenty four inches 
apart. This will allow of a proper leaf development on each particular 
shoot that may be left. It is only by allowing space and full exposure 
that the leaves can be properly developed ; and assuredly without good 
leaves there can never be good Grapes. 

Long-rod Pruning. The Long-rod system of pruning the Vine is 
that which was practised almost exclusively in this country until about 
fifty years ago, when the spur system was introduced ; the latter is so 
much more simple and so superior that the former is scarcely ever 
adopted now. Nevertheless, for some varieties of Grapes that bear 
better on young wood the long-rod system of pruning is decidedly 
preferable. It may be explained that the method is simply that of 
training in a number of young rods, and pruning them so that the fruit 
is borne from the buds on these rods. Very good fruit is thus produced, 
but the objection to the system always was, and is, its irregularity, and 
the confusion which occurs in regard to the pruning and stopping of 
the shoots. Under careless management the bearing rods get all 
crowded together, and a great quantity of useless wood is produced. 

Extension System. The extension system of training and pruning 
is simply that of allowing one Vine to grow so as to occupy an 
extended space ; instead of confining it to one stem, many stems are 
allowed to be formed in course of time. There is much to be said in 
favour of this system, especially in large lofty houses where Vines 
require some time to occupy all the space. The development of young 
rods induces increased vigour, and imparts fresh life and energy to 




the plant ; and the crop from a Vine so trained is fully greater than 
that of several Vines occupying a similar space. In the extension 
system the young rods may be pruned on the spur system, as already 
described. Some of the best examples of this system are to be seen 
in the Black Hamburgh Vine at Mr. Kay's, Finchley, which is pruned 
to five main stems, extending over the entire roof of the house, eighty- 
nine feet long by eighteen feet wide, which space it filled in six 
years ; the Muscat house at Longleat, eighty feet long, four Vines, 
one at each corner, filling the entire space ; and the great Vine at 
Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Park. 

Another noteworthy specimen of the extension system is the Black 
Hamburgh Vine at Manresa House, Roehampton. This was raised 
from a cutting by the present gardener, Mr. M. Davis, and planted 
against a wall in the garden thirty-one years ago, for supplying 
leaves for garnishing. It grew well, and one of its rods was taken 
under a walk into a neighbouring house. The Vine has now seven 
rods, trained as straight as lines, horizontally, about two feet apart, 
under the sharply pitched lean-to roof. They are disbudded on the 
under side, shoots being taken at intervals of about a foot from the 
upper side only, occupying the space to the next rod. The Vine fills a 
house two hundred and twenty -four feet long, and the aggregate length 
of the rods is one thousand three hundred and sixty five feet, or 
upwards of a quarter of a mile ; the Grapes hanging in long, straight 
lines, with the regularity of bottled Grapes on racks in a fruit room, 
have an imposing appearance. The bunches average from one 
pound to three pounds in weight, and the berries are large and well 
finished. One season, eight hundred bunches were cut and sold for 
107. This Vine is in perfect health, is the pride of the place, and 
a credit to its manager. 

The Vine being diffuse and somewhat rambling in its growth, there 
can be no doubt that the principle of extension is more consonant with 
its natural habit than that of repression, of which the spur system is 
an extreme development. Extension is assuredly favourable to long- 
evity, whereas the opposite treatment more rapidly uses up the 
-energies of the plant. The more a Vine is allowed to grow the greater 
amount of vital force it secures ; were it not that the Vine is an 
exceedingly good-tempered subject, and quickly recuperative, this 
result would become more generally apparent than it now is. Rich 
feeding, with restricted growth, will lead to the production of heavy 
crops of fine fruit, but it is a high pressure system of management, 
and it is seldom long before Vines break down under it, and lapse 
into a condition of mediocrity. 




N the commencement of the growth of the Vine, each succeeding 
season, the first operation that requires to be performed, and 
to which attention must be at once directed, is that which is 
termed disbudding, but which is, in reality, a thinning-out 
and regulating of the young shoots that have appeared This is an 
operation of very great importance in respect to young Vines, as upon 
its being properly carried out will depend their future form or 
character. Disbudding is, in fact, the first step in training, although 
it is practised much in the same manner long after the form of the 
Vine is established. Improper disbudding will counteract the best 
system of pruning that may be adopted ; therefore it should be per- 
formed carefully and judiciously. The time for disbudding is just as 
soon as it may be perceived that there are more buds than are requisite 
say, when the shoots are an inch or thereabouts in length ; but the 
sooner it is done the better. To allow the superfluous buds to develop 
into shoots, and then to break them off, is a clear waste of the energies 
of the Vine. Some cultivators wait until it can be seen where the 
clusters will be produced before disbudding finally, and this is safe- 
practice with some varieties of Grapes. 

In disbudding a young Vine, or a leading shoot of the previous year's 
growth, the first care should be for the top or leading bud, the growth 
from which should be carefully tied in and preserved from injury, as 
forming a continuation of the main stem. In the disbudding of a young 
Vine, we also regulate the number of shoots which form the future 
spurs, as explained in the previous chapter. To allow space for the 
full development of the foliage, these side-shoots should not be less 
than eighteen or twenty inches apart on each side of the stem. It 
frequently happens, especially in the case of slowly-grown Vines, that 
the buds on the stem are more numerous than the shoots required, 
and in such cases, all those not required must be removed rubbed off, 
as the phrase is. Nothing is more pernicious in Vine culture than the 
crowding of the shoots and leaves. It is well, therefore, to make a 
fair beginning with the proper number, and this is done by disbudding. 
Careless disbudding, or rubbing off the wrong buds, that is, the buds 
that should be retained, which is easily done, must be guarded against. 
The loss of a bud often means the entire loss of the shoot or spur, and 
is the source of permanent disfigurement to the Vine. 

Disbudding, also, at times, takes the place of pruning. If the lower 
buds of a young Vine-rod do not break well, it is a good plan to rub 


off the higher or top buds, which will induce the lower ones to break 
stronger. Again, if it has been forgotten to prune a Vine or shoot 
until it has become too late to do so on account of the risk of bleeding, 
the neglect may, to some extent, be rectified by a careful rubbing off 
of the buds, as soon as they may appear, back to the point where the 
shoot ought to have been pruned to ; and then, when the leaves are 
about fully developed, the sap of the Vine will be sufficiently diverted, 
.and the shoot may be pruned with safety. 

Following closely on the operation of disbudding comes that of 
ty ing-down and stopping the shoots. The young shoots of a Vine, 
especially when they are growing vigorously, are exceedingly tender 
and easily broken, so that the work of tying them down into their 
proper position on the wires or trellis to which the Vines are trained 
for they naturally grow upwards towards the glass requires a great 
amount of care and patience When they are found to be at all 
brittle, they must only be inclined or drawn down a little at one 
time, and so gradually bent or guided into the right position. 
Practically, however, it is not advisable to tie the shoots very early ; 
if the leaves are allowed to expand a little, and the shoots to get 
some of their woody fibre developed, they will be found to bend pretty 
freely into the desired form without breaking. 

In reference to stopping the shoots, our illustration, fig. 20, shows 
the upper portion of a young Vine-shoot, with its bunch of flowers, 
which is eventually to become a cluster of berries, as it would appear 
at this stage. The stopping is requisite in order to keep the growth 
within certain limits, and thus to prevent overcrowding and a con- 
fusion of the shoots. According to the spur system, the main stems 
being from four to five feet apart, the side- shoots, on which the fruit 
is borne, cannot be allowed to extend to more than two and a half 
feet in length, otherwise they, must overlap each other. But often in 
fact, the length of the shoots has to be regulated by the position of 
the bunch. The usual practice is to stop them at two joints beyond 
the bunch, as shown at a in our figure, or at one joint beyond, 5, if 
there is not space for a greater extension. Practically, the longer 
these shoots can be allowed to grow without stopping the better, 
as the greater the quantity of fully-developed first leaves, the greater 
the amount of vigour induced. The operation itself should be 
performed as soon as the shoot attains the requisite length, and is done 
simply by pinching off the tip, at the point indicated, fig, 20a, between 
the finger and thumb, before it has become fully developed. There is 
thus nothing, or scarcely anything, to take off, no denuding of the 
Vine of a portion of its foliage, and no consequent check to its 
growth. It is a very bad practice indeed to allow the shoots to grow 
to such a length as to render it necessary to use the knife in stopping 
them. This is a great waste of the Vine's resources. The tendril 
forming a part of the bunch 'of fruit should be pinched off at the same 


Fig. 20. YOUNG SHOOT OF VINE, showing the mode of stopping. 


time as shown in fig. 20 at c, as also should the bunch or tendril, d t 
found opposite the first or second leaf above the proper bunch. 

After this first pinching or stopping, the foremost buds seen in the 
axils of the leaves again produce shoots, according to their vigour, as 
shown in fig. 21. These second 
shoots are called laterals, or summer 
lateral shoots, as shoAvn in chap, ix., 
fig, 13, E. They should be stopped 
in the same way immediately beyond 
the first leaf, as at fig. 2 la, and so 
on again and again throughout the 
season, as they may continue to grow. 

The leading shoot of a young Vine 
is, of course, to be exempted from 
this stopping, excepting in so far as 
relates to the laterals it produces ; 
and these, if space is limited, must 
be stopped in the manner just ex- 
plained, or they may be trained out 
in the same manner as the proper 
shoots, and allowed to extend and 
occupy as much space as may be 
available. It should always be borne 
in mind, that the greater the quan- 
tity of fully- developed leaves and 
shoots, the more powerful must be 
the root action and the more vigorous 
the plant. The stopping of the shoots 
of a Vine is not a checking or 
repressing of its vigour, but rather a 
guiding or directing of its energies into certain channels of a more 
desirable and beneficial character than those they would follow if left 
to themselves. 

Care must be taken that at the commencement of the colouring 
period the shoots are all kept properly stopped. At this period the 
greatest caution is necessary that no check should be sustained by the 
respiratory organs of the Vine, which a sudden stripping of the leaves 
might cause, with the probable result of inducing shanking or some 
other evil. If, through neglect, the shoots may have grown somewhat 
long and become confused, it is better to leave them so until the fruit 
is coloured and ripe, and the critical period is past, than to remove 
a great number at one time. 

showing the mode of stopping. 




'HE flowering period and that of the setting of the fruit are 
I anxious times to most cultivators of the Vine, especially in the 
case of early forcing, so much being dependent upon the state 
of the weather, and consequently upon the careful management 
of the temperature and the atmosphere of the house. Vines in good 
robust health set their fruit, in a general way, quite freely under the 
proper conditions, but sickly ones do not, and the more sickly they 
are the less satisfactory is the setting. 

By the setting of the fruit is meant the proper fertilization of the 
ovary. If the flowers are not properly fertilized they will probably 
fall off; or, perhaps, small berries may be formed, but as no seed can 
be produced by reason of non-fertilization, they, as a consequence, 
will not grow to their proper size. The fertilizing process, in a 
mechanical point of view, consists of the application of the pollen 
to the stigma, or point of the style or pistil of the flower. It is 
effected at a very early stage, the little jerk occasioned by the 
dislodgment of the " cap " or covering causing the pollen-dust to be 
dispersed. This is generally effected naturally, or without any 
assistance beyond the maintenance of the proper temperature, 
atmospheric conditions, etc., and these, of course, vary according to 
circumstances, which will be noticed more fully hereafter. 

Some cultivators consider it absolutely necessary to maintain con- 
tinuously a very high temperature from 65 to 70 by night for 
the setting of their Grapes. This may be desirable for the forcing-on 
of the Grapes, but it is not really required for the mere " setting " of 
the fruit. For example, in late houses, and on the open walls, the 
Vines set their fruit quite freely at a much lower temperature ; we 
have frequently seen it below 45 at night, and yet the Grapes have 
set well. It is, therefore, fair to assume that a temperature ranging 
from 55 to 60 by night is quite high enough for the mere purpose of 
setting the fruit, provided there is the desired rise in the temperature 
during the day. Be it noted that the setting process takes place in 
the early morning and forenoon. The temperature by day should 
always be high by sun-heat. If there is proper ventilation, the 
cultivator should have no fear of a high sun-temperature. The 
one great requirement is sunshine only not too suddenly bright after 
dull weather with a fine mild bracing atmosphere, so that fresh air 
in abundance may be admitted to the houses. It is the fine bracing 
air when supplemented by the action of sun-heat which induces the 
dispersion of the pollen, and by this means effects the setting of the 


At times, when sunshine is wanting, or when it is felt that extra 
care is required, it is well to apply artificial assistance, such as 
* setting " the flowers with a camel-hair pencil. The smallest portion 
of pollen applied to the stigma will be sufficient ; or the plan of 
smartly tapping the stems of the Vines, so as to shake the bunches, 
may be adopted, when the pollen will be seen to fly off like a cloud of 
dust : or, again, recourse may be had by drawing the hand gently 
over the bunch. This plan is frequently practised with success 
amongst the more " shy setters." 

Certain varieties of Grapes, it is well known, set their fruit freely 
at all times, and under all sorts of conditions that may be 
favourable for the Vine. Other varieties do not set freely, whatever 
may be the reason, and are, in consequence, termed " bad setters." 
Many and varied conjectures and ideas have been submitted from 
time to time as to the probable cause of this defect. In practice 
cultivators overcome the defect by artificially impregnating the flowers, 
either with pollen from the same or of some other variety. For the 
setting of Muscats a somewhat high temperature and dry atmosphere 
are considered beneficial, yet others have been equally successful in 
following the opposite practice low temperature and syringing the 
bunches when in flower. Scientists have pointed out that the pollen 
and the stigma in some varieties do not ripen at the same time, so 
that fertilization cannot take place, and the action of foreign pollen 
becomes necessary. In some cases the pollen is found to be inert ; 
stress has also been laid on the peculiarity of some sorts having the 
point of the stigma exceedingly moist, notably Black Morocco, and so 
preventing fertilization, a condition generally supposed to be favour- 
able for the reception of the pollen. 

Herr Stefan Molnar, Director of the School of Vine culture at Buda- 
Pesth, has observed that the "free-setting" varieties of Grapes have 
the stamens erect, forming a cluster round 
the stigma ; whilst the " bad- setting" varie- 
ties have the stamens deflexed or falling 
away from the pistil, so that the pollen 
does not so readily reach the stigmas. Dr. 
Engelmann has also observed the same 
peculiarity, and states that " the fertile 
plants are of two kinds some are perfect 
hermaphrodites with long and straight 
stamens, the others bear smaller stamens, vi x-4 

shorter than the pistil, which soon bend u i jj a 

downwards and curve under it ; these may Fig. 22. Flowers of the 
be called imperfect hermaphrodites and do Gra P e Vine showing position 
not seem to be as fruitful as the perfect &S$Sd$ ^ing*" 
hermaphrodites unless fertilized.' 5 

Fig. 22a is an illustration of the perfect hermaphrodite flower as in 



the Black Hamburgh, Gros Colman, Koyal Muscadine, etc. These 
would appear to set freely from the stamens forming a cluster round 

' <* 


the top of the stigma, on which, when the cap is dislodged, the pollen 
immediately falls, and impregnation is effected. 


Fig. 22& represents the " imperfect hermaphrodite " flower which 
we have observed in the following varieties : Alnwick Seedling, 
Black Morocco, Chaouch, Diamant Traube, Eldorado, Lady. These 
varieties do not, as a fact, set freely ; and this is, probably, owing to 
the deflexed stamens not being near enough to the stigma for it to 
receive the pollen, these apparently not being affected by the jerk in 
the dislodgement of the cap to so great an extent as the others. 

It would thus appear that the defect of setting in some instances 
is a structural or constitutional peculiarity, not influenced to any great 
extent by the cultivator's skill. Artificial impregnation is the only 
legitimate remedy or practice to follow. 

The illustration here given, fig. 23, is that of a small bunch of the 
Black Morocco, in which it will be seen that only two or three berries 
have been properly set, and have continued to grow ; the small berries 
never growing larger, although they ripen, and are very sweet, 
in this respect exactly resembling those varieties which are termed 
" stoneless " Grapes, such as the Black Monukka, Corinth, Sultana, 
etc., which rarely produce any perfect berries, although they have 
erect stamens. 




'HIS is an operation of considerable importance, not only for the 
well-being of the crop of fruit, but also for the after or lasting 
well-being of the plant itself. The Vine is extremely fruitful, 
so much so, that were the whole crop of the bunches produced 
by it allowed to remain, the plant would soon succumb through over- 
fertility. It is easily possible to over-crop a Vine, and where such 
has been the case, it will take years for it to regain its former 
strength. It is quite impossible to form any estimate as to how many 
bunches, or what crop a Vine should carry, so much depends upon its 
health and constitution, 011 its surroundings, and on the subsequent 
management accorded it. A very good rule to follow would be 
this : according to the surface of properly developed leaves, etc., so 
should be the crop of fruit taken. We know we must have so many 
good leaves for every pound of fruit, and the greater the amount of 
properly developed foliage allowed the better. If we bear in mind 
that all the colouring and sweetening matter which goes to the per- 
fecting of the berries has first to pass through and be elaborated by 
the leaves, it will be seen that without a certain amount of healthy 
leaf-surface good fruit cannot be produced. A Vine with weak sickly 
foliage cannot produce or bear much fruit, and a Vine whose foliage 
gets destroyed by red-spider, etc., is in exactly the same condition. 

As a general rule, one bunch on each spur would be considered a 
heavy crop. If one third of these bunches were taken off, the bunches 
being of moderate size, what is left would be a moderate crop, say an 
average of one pound to every foot of rod. In thinning the bunches 
of such free-setting varieties as the Black Hamburgh, every second 
bunch on each spur should be cut off before the flowers open, and all 
others which it is desirable to remove as soon as the Grapes are set. 
The thinning of the bunches as well as of the berries should take 
place as early as possible. It is a great waste of power to allow that 
to develop itself which is not required, and which it is known must 
be cut away ; therefore, as soon as the berries are fairly set, thin out 
that is, cut off the supernumerary bunches at once, and commence 
the thinning of the berries. 

The thinning of the berries, or Grape-thinning as it is popularly 
called, is a delicate and somewhat tedious operation. To be expert at 
this work requires not only considerable practice, but a quick eye to 



see where and what to cut, and a nimble yet steady hand, so that the 
berries retained may not be injured. Fig. 24 represents a small bunch 
of the Black Hamburgh unthinned, and fig. 25 one of similar size 


after being properly thinned. In the former example there were one 
hundred and thirty-two berries, and in the second there were, before 
they were cut out, one-hundred and twenty-four berries, but these have 
been reduced by the scissors to sixty-four about one-half. This may 
be taken as a fair average of the thinning required for ordinary well 
set Black Hamburgh Grapes. Of course, the number retained should 



vary according to the size of the berries of each sort ; such varieties as 
the Royal Muscadine do not require to be so severely treated. It 
seems to the uninitiated a great sacrifice to cut away so many, the 


thinned bunch appearing quite a skeleton; but when it is remem- 
bered that each berry, when fully grown, should be nearly one inch 
in diameter (oftentimes more), it is plain that to leave more than there 


is actual space for is absurd, as well as injurious. With some close- 
clustered varieties, such as Black Alicante, it is often desirable to 
commence the thinning process before the flowers open. 

The mechanical operation of thinning Grapes is thus performed : 
Procure a little cleft or forked stick about six inches long to use with 
the left hand, in order to hold the bunch firmly without touching it, 
and take a pair of Grape-scissors in the ri^ht hand. Trim the bunch 
if required into proper shape first, then continue by cutting out all 
the inner berries, next all the small berries, and then the side berries. 
The expert hand will cut these off two or three or more at a time, not 
singly, as the hesitating, unpractised hand will do. This, it will be 
found, will have materially lessened the work, and it will only remain 
to regulate the remainder to the required distance apart. 

The time that is occupied in thinning Grapes is very great, but it 
must be given to the operation if good Grapes are desired. It will 
take about five minutes for an expert hand to thin properly a one 
pound bunch. With larger bunches it is frequently desirable to tie 
the shoulders up, and so spread the bunch out, or loop them up to the 
trellis with 5- sna P e( i pieces of thin wire of the requisite length ; 
others prop the shoulders up from underneath with bits of wood ; 
but for ordinary cultivators not any of these aids are required ; the 
berries as they swell lift each other up, and the clusters thus remain 
compact. Care should be taken not to make the bunches too thin ; 
loose spreading bunches are objectionable and easily damaged. 
They should be so thinned, that when ripe and cut the bunch or 
cluster may remain firm and compact, whilst every berry has been 
allowed to develop itself freely to its full size. . 

Very expert hands may be able to thin a bunch properly at one 
operation small bunches may easily be so ; but, as a general rule, 
they require to be gone over twice before the stoning period, and once 
after, during what is termed the "second swelling," in order to remove 
all small berries, and otherwise regulate the bunches. 

In the great Grape-growing establishments the greater part of this 
work is performed by women and young persons, who are nimble 
with their fingers. 




KAPES, unlike most other kinds of fruit, will keep in a ripened 
state, and in a usable condition, on the plant ; a certain 
amount of nourishment or sustentation being necessary to the 
maintenance of the berries in a properly fresh and plump 
condition. Grapes, although ripe, soon shrivel or decay if dissevered 
from the Vine, excepting sustenance is provided in some way; 
properly ripened, and placed under favourable conditions, they will 
keep in excellent condition for a long time. The better they are 
ripened, the better they will keep. Some varieties, however, possess 
this keeping property to a far greater extent than others. The fact 
of being thus able to keep ripe Grapes, prolongs the season of their 
use, and greatly assists in maintaining a continuous supply. 

The cultivation of the Vine in glass-houses is the primary means by 
which we are enabled thus to keep its fruit. Grapes grown in the 
open air cannot be kept for any length of time onaccount of the weather, 
but under glass they are under control. Vineries, therefore, that are 
required for late or keeping Grapes should be so constructed as to 
meet the special requirements of the case ; these are .the maintenance 
of an equable temperature and a dry atmosphere, which are secured 
by proper heating powers, and thorough ventilation. 

All Grapes that are required for late use should be ripened by the 
end of September. Grapes that have to be ripened after this period 
do not keep so well. The Gros Colman is an exception to this rule ; 
the later they are, the better they keep. Although when the fruit 
becomes ripe the most active period of the growth of the Vine is past, 
it is not well, although it is a very old custom, to keep the borders 
and the roots dry. The artificial drought is injurious to the roots, 
which are still in action, and not beneficial to the fruit, for the longer 
the foliage can be maintained fresh and green, the better the Grapes 
will keep. Mr. William Taylor, of Longleat, now of Bath, does not 
hesitate to water his inside borders on wet days, whilst the Vines are 
laden with ripe fruit ; he has no fear of damp or mould arising in that 
way, and he is right. His trust is in thorough ventilation by day 
and by night, and the maintenance by fire heat of an equable temper- 
ature, ranging as near 45 as may be possible. Constant daily 
supervision is necessary, and great care should be taken to remove 
any decaying berries. 

Ripe Grapes may be kept in good condition on the Vines unti] 
March and April, or until the rise of the sap ; but if allowed to hang 


to so late a period, the operation of pruning may prove injurious to 
the Vines. All fruit should, if possible, be removed from the Vines, 
so that they may be pruned by the end of January. 

Bottling Grapes. Grapes may be cut from the Vines, and having 
their stalks placed in bottles of water, may be kept in a fruit room 
or other suitable apartment in almost as perfect a condition as those 
that are allowed to hang on the Vines ; and where the quantity is 
limited, this can be done at a very much less expense. Further, they 
may thus be kept to a later period than it is possible to keep them on 
the Vines. This is a method of keeping Grapes that has been for 

some time adopted in France, although 
scarcely known in this country until 
brought under notice by Mr. Eobinson, in 
his Parks, Promenades and Gardens of 
Pa-is, in 1869. It is now, however, 
adopted, with modifications, in many estab- 
lishments in this country. 

The originator of the system was M. 
Rose-Charmeux, of Thomery, who had a 
small room in his house fitted for the 
purpose, fig. 27, from which light and air 
Fig. 26. RAIL USED IN were? ag far ag poss ibl e , excluded. Fig. 26 
FIXINU THE BOTTLES FOR ghowg the rail uged for fixing the bott i es> 
GRAPES AT THOMERY. Qne of the begt exampleg of this met hod 

Yron Parks and Gardens of Paris. ^ ^ ^^ ^ Ferri fe re ^ near Paris, the 

seat of Baron Alphonse de Rothschild, 

where M. Bergmann, the excellent gardener, has a Grape room 
specially fitted for the purpose, and in this all the Grapes are placed 
as they become ripe. Fig. 28 A is an illustration of the mode of 
fixing the bottles as there adopted, and fig. 28 B shows the arrange- 
ment of screens or partitions adopted within the room for the 
convenient stowage of the bottles when in use. 

The ordinary fruit room will not answer for this purpose ; the 
Grapes cannot be kept with other fruits, but require special provision 
to be made for them. A thoroughly dry, close, dark room is what is 
required a room wherein an equable temperature of 40 to 45 may 
be maintained. Dryness is the first consideration, so if a separate 
room has to be constructed, it should be built with hollow walls and a 
double set of doors, in order to counteract the effects of fluctuations in 
tempsrature and moisture. It should be heated, also, so that it may 
be practicable to drive out damp when necessary, although much fire 
heat is not required, for when once the Grapes are placed in the room, 
the less frequently it is opened the better, as the admission of damp 
cold air is to be avoided. 

The Grapes intended to be thus kept ought to be quite ripe, and 
should be cut with a considerable portion of the shoot attached. The 



end of this shoot is then placed in a bottle filled with pure 
water ; no charcoal is necessary to keep it pure, nor does it matter 


(From Robinson's Parks and Gardens of Paris.) 

much which end of the shoot is placed in the water. The bottles, 
when thus filled, are to be placed on the rack, as shown in the 
illustrations, the fruit hanging clear and not touching anything. If 


(From Parkt and Gardens of Paris.) 



the room is dry and suitable, certain sorts of Grapes will keep in 
plump condition until the month of May, and even later. 

Fig. 29 shows, in section, one side of the Grape-room at Heckfield, 
and indicates the arrangement of the Grape-bottles in three tiers of 
racks running horizontally round the room. 

In the excellent fruit-room at Combe Abbey, 
Coventry, Mr. Miller has fitted up a case like an 
ordinary book-case, with glass doors, in which the 
Grapes are kept in bottles in very good condition. 

Opinions differ as to whether the fruit is deteri- 
orated in quality by being thus kept. It is obvious 
that support is derived from the water, and this 
subsequent absorption of water can scarcely act 
otherwise than to reduce the amount of saccharine 
properties in the fruit. Mr. Thomson, in The 
Florist and Pomoloyist, records an instance of an 
invalid lady being made ill by eating "bottled 
Grapes," while fresh-cut fruit, on the contrary, 
proved to be invigorating. 

The best late-keeping Grapes are those varieties 
having thick skins, viz., Gros Colman, Lady Downe's 
Seedling, Alnwick Seedling, West's St. Peter's, 
Gros Guillaume, Trebbiano, White Tokay, and 
Muscat of Alexandria. It is difficult to keep Black 
Hamburgh Grapes in good condition on the Vines 
after Christmas but if cut before that time, and 
placed in bottles, they may be had in a sound state 
during the month of January or later. 

Fig. 29. SECTION- 



(From Parks and 
Gardens of Paris,) 





'HE packing of fruit which has to be sent away is a matter of 
I considerable importance, and is deserving of a greater amount 
of care and attention than is generally given to it. A very great 
quantity of good fruit is spoiled, absolutely spoiled, by careless 
packing. The knowledge, therefore, how to pack for transit, so that 
the least possible injury may be caused to the fruit, is of great value. 

In packing Grapes, a natural desire is always felt to preserve the 
bloom, and a fear is always present with the inexperienced that they 
are packing too tightly. It may be observed that Grapes cannot be 
packed at all without a certain amount of rubbing and destruction of 
the bloom, but if the work be carefully and promptly performed it will 
not amount to much. In the case of properly packed Grapes, all the 
rubbing and damage occurs during the operation of packing, whilst in 
that of careless packing the damage is sustained during transit. 

The great art of packing Grapes, or, indeed, any fruit, is to pack 
firmly, so that they cannot shift or move about. Boxes are preferable 
to baskets, as they do not so readily yield to pressure. In packing 
certain quantities, it is better to make the box of a size to hold the 
quantity required, and to fill it. The depth of the box should be 
according to the depth and breadth of the bunches, but need never 
exceed live inches. The method we have always adopted here and 
Grapes have been sent with safety from Chiswick to all parts of the 
world is to place a thick layer of cotton-wool, or of short, dry, specially 
prepared grass, at the bottom of the box ; several sheets of thin paper 
are then placed over this, and the box is also lined with paper, one 
half of the top sheets being allowed to hang over, for the purpose of 
being folded over the Grapes when the box is filled. The bunches on 
being cut are laid in the box, beginning at one end, placing them 
with the stalks upwards, as closely together 'as they can be, and 
keeping them well up to the top or rather above the top of the box 
to allow for settling. The larger the box the greater the care 
required. When the box seems full, a slight shaking whilst holding 
it a little on one side will cause the bunches to settle down still 
closer, when another bunch or two can be added, or the space filled 
up with cotton-wool. After filling the box the paper is folded over 
the top oJ the Grapes, and all the hollow places between the paper 
and the side of the box filled with packing material. If the Grapes 
quite fill .the box after shaking, nothing is placed on the top besides 
the paper ; if 0mewhat flat a sheet or two of cotton-wool is placed 


over the paper, and the lid is screwed or nailed down. Cotton -wool 
is never used next to the Grapes, excepting occasionally to support a 
heavy shoulder. 

A new material named " wood-wool " has lately come into use for 
packing purposes, and is found to answer admirably for Grapes. It 
is used in the same way as cotton-wool, which it is likely to displace, 
having much more buoyancy and elasticity. " Wood-wool " is the fine 
hair-like shavings of wood prepared for the purpose, the best being that 
of willow or poplar. That made from deal is apt, if kept in a warm 
place, to impart a taste of the resin. 

For several years Messrs. Webber & Co., Co vent Garden, offered 
prizes at the meetings of the Koyal Horticultural Society for the best 
mode of packing fruit to be sent long distances. The most successful 
competitor, Mr. Coleman, gardener at Eastnor Castle, practised much 
the same method of packing as we have here described, but used dry 
moss in preference to any other packing material. There is a certain 
elasticity about moss that renders it specially suitable for the purpose, 
and where it can be procured it is well to use it. It is superior to 
cotton-wool, which has very little elasticity. Mr. Coleman's method 
of packing fruit is very lucidly described in the Gardener*? Chronicle, 
N.S. xii., 624. His instructions in respect to packing Muscats, which 
are very easily bruised and discoloured, as well as for packing large 
bunches, are particularly good ; not only does he line the bottom of 
the box with dry moss, but " the sides and ends are lined with long 
strips of wadding, folded in silver paper," and the bunches being laid 
in sheets of paper, are divided from each other by strips of wadding 
and packed firmly. The wadding or cotton-wool must not, on any 
account, be placed in direct contact with the fruit. 

Another method is to wrap each bunch separately in thin paper, 
and then pack with cotton-wool or moss, or sometimes bran, but as 
these methods cannot be recommended it is unnecessary to notice 
them further. 

White Chasselas and White Lisbon Grapes, as sold by grocers, are 
termed dry fruit, and are not included as Grapes proper ; these are 
received packed loosely in large casks or barrels, which are then filled 
with bran or cork dust. In this way they arrive in wonderfully 
fresh condition. When unpacked the bran has to be brushed off 
before they can be sold or used. For the packing of Grapes for 
market, see chap. xxii. 

Packing Grapes for Exhibition. When required for exhibition, 
Grapes have to be submitted in the most perfect condition possible, 
showing as little as may be of rubbing or the displacement of the 
bloom. They cannot, therefore, be packed or sent in any ordinary 
way. No matter how securely the bunches may be fastened, and how 
legibly the boxes may be labelled " Grapes with Care," " This side 
up," if consigned to the ordinary means of transit they are invariably 


smashed or damaged. The preservation of the bloom forbids the use 
of packing material indeed, nothing must touch the Grapes, and yet 
they must be fastened securely enough to be carried safely ; they 
must, in fact, be taken to the exhibition and staged under special 
personal supervision. 

The ordinary plan is to fix the bunches by the stalk with wire to 
a board or stand, previously covered with white paper, and placed in 
a sloping position. When the bunches are long or large, one or two 
more ties are required to prevent their moving, and the loose 
shoulders are propped up with wads of cotton-wool. This board or 
stand, with bunches affixed, is then placed in a suitably prepared box, 
and screwed down. Great care must be taken to have it carried in 
the same position to its destination. 


Practised exhibitors have specially prepared stands and boxesy 
which show off the Grapes to great advantage, and in which they 
can also be carried with great safety. The illustration here given, 
fig. 30, is that of a stand for two bunches from 12 to 15 inches in 
length, the same as used by Mr. Taylor, gardener to Alderman Chaffin,, 
of Bath, which is one of the best we have seen. 




'HE cultivation of Vines in pots does not seem to have been 
( practised to any extent until about fifty or sixty years ago, as 
we read in The Transactions of the Horticultural Society of "Pot 
Vines bearing fruit one year old " being exhibited in London in 
1818, which were looked upon as quite wonderful. During the last 
twenty-five years, however, the cultivation of Vines in pots has been 
carried on to an extraordinary extent. In some gardens they are used 
for very early forcing to precede permanent Vines ; and in others 
they are used to' supply the place of established Vines, when the houses 
or borders may be undergoing some change affecting the immediate 

The cultivation of the Grape Vine in pots has become, therefore, a 
very important section of Vine culture, and requires special notice. 
The manufacture, if we may so term it, of " Pot " Vines in many of 
the leading nursery establishments is a very important matter. It 
would be interesting, were it possible of computation, to ascertain the 
number of young Vines annually grown and disposed of, both as 
planting and fruiting Vines. It amounts to many thousands we hear, 
indeed, of as many as five thousand ! being produced annually at one 
establishment. What becomes of this vast host it would be still more 
difficult to ascertain, but probably not a tenth part of the number 
ever become permanent Vines. Suffice it thus far to indicate the 
importance of the trade. 

The growing of Vines in pots is of a two-fold character, two 
distinct purposes being in view ; firstly, that of producing Vines for 
planting, subsequently to be grown as permanent Vines; and 
secondly, that of producing Vines for fruiting in pots. 

Some first-class cultivators grow on the Vines obtained from eyes 
" struck " in early spring to their " fruiting state," the same season. 
Others " strike " the eyes and grow the plants on till the end of the 
season, and the following year cut them down, re-pot, and grow again, 
thus occupying two years in producing a similar result. The one-year- 
old plants, if properly grown, are generally considered the better ; but 
as they are only produced under very favourable conditions, and 
require an excessive amount of care and attention, they cost, possibly, 
more than the two-year-old plants, or " cut-backs," as they are 
familiarly called. In nursery establishments those Vines that may 
not arrive at the proper standard of fruiting strength may be utilised 
as " planters," but in private establishments the Vine that is grown for 



fruiting, and is not sufficiently strong, is a useless incumbrance. Vines 
for fruiting in pots should be well grown or not at all. There is no 
plant that repays better for proper care and attention, yet a very little 
neglect involves total failure. 

As a rule, the numerous young Vines required for all purposes are 
reared in nurseries, and sold for planting or fruiting, as the case may 
be. There is no actual difference in their cultivation in the nurseries 
from that followed in any other well-conducted garden, except that 
often a larger number have to be produced from a given space, and 
consequently they must be grown closer together. 

The practice generally adopted for the production of Fruiting Vines 
in one year is as follows : 

1. Propagation. Full instructions on this part of the subject are 
given in chap, ii., to which the reader is referred. We commence 
here with the u eye," rooted and growing in a sixty -sized pot. 

2. Potting, etc. Liberal pot room must be provided so as to grow 
the Vines quickly. Therefore, as soon as it is found that the roots 
have reached the bottom or sides of the pot, re-pot into a five-inch or 
forty-eight-sized pot, and from this, immediately the roots have again 
reached the bottom, into an eight-inch, and from this into a ten-inch 
or twelve-inch pot, which is called the fruiting pot. This last size 
will be found quite large enough for all practical purposes. Plants 
that are intended to be grown the second year need not be potted in 
larger than five-inch or eight-inch pots. After the last shift, which 
should not be later than the beginning of July, when the pots get well 
stored with roots, they should be liberally top-dressed from time to 
time ; this top-dressing, which may be raised above the rim of the pot, 
will be found to get well filled with fibry roots. 

3. Soil, etc. The best light, fresh, fibry loam that can be 
procured should be chosen for the first potting, with broken charcoal, 
and a little bone-dust and decayed manure ; the rougher the condition 
in which it is used the better. The pots should be carefully and 
efficiently drained this is a very important matter. For the second 
and third pottings the soil may be somewhat richer and stronger. Pot 
Vines cannot be grown in poor soil. Top-dressings should consist of 
equal parts of decayed manure and loam with some horn shavings or 
bones. Care must be taken in potting to have the soil of the same 
temperature as the houses in which the plants are growing, and the 
Vines should be potted in the same place if possible, so as to prevent 
any possibility of chill from exposure, any check to their growth 
arising therefrom being extremely injurious to them at this stage. 

4. Watering, etc. Abundance of water is at all times necessary 
for growing Vines ; they should never be allowed to become dry, and 
should be syringed several times a-day, and the atmosphere kept 
continually charged with moisture. When the fruiting pots are fully 
charged with roots, liquid manure should be frequently applied. 


5. Temperature, Bottom-heat, etc. Vine-eyes, on being struck, 
should be plunged in a bed having a bottom-heat of 80 and an 
atmospheric temperature by fire-heat of 65 or 70, which by sun-heat 
may be allowed to rise to 90 or 100. Too much sun-heat can 
scarcely be indulged in, if the atmosphere is plentifully charged with 
moisture. The same regulations as to temperature apply throughout 
the season, or until the Vines begin to ripen. Bottom-heat, i.e., the 
plunging of the pots in a heated medium, is not requisite when the 
plants become large. Some cultivators, however, continue to main- 
tain bottom-heat in one form or another during the whole growing 

6. Training, Stopping, etc. As the young Vines grow they require 
to be staked, and to have the tendrils and lateral shoots pinched off 
as they are put forth. The leading shoot should not be stopped until 
it has grown to the required length. Some recommend stopping it 
when about eighteen inches in length about the time the plant is 
fairly rooted in the eight-inch pot and training up, not the first, but 
the second lateral shoot that is produced, to form the stem. This 
stopping is believed to concentrate more strength in the lower portion 
of the stem, but we have not found it of any practical utility. The 
young stem, although appearing slender when eighteen inches or so in 
length, rapidly gets thicker and stronger if properly cared for. When 
the Vines have arrived at their full length, from six to eight or ten 
feet, as the case may be, this being generally regulated by the size of 
the pit or structure in which they may be grown, they must be 
stopped ; and the laterals, as they appear, must be closely stopped 
also to the first leaf, in exactly the same manner as recommended for 
permanent Vines. When the canes have ripened, which may be in 
November, they should be at once pruned ; that is, all the lateral 
spurs should be cut off, and the stem cut down to the length required 
from five to eight feet, according to its strength. 

7. Position, Situation, etc. The young Vines whilst growing 
should be kept as close to the glass as possible, and as they increase 
in length a good situation for them is along the front of a low pit 
or house, training the rods to a trellis against the roof. In this 
manner the whole of the leaves, etc., are fully exposed to the sun's 
influence, and well-developed fruit-buds are produced the entire 
length of the rod. This is why home-grown Vines are often 
superior to nursery plants ; because in nurseries, they are mostly 
grown in a vertical position, and being necessarily thickly placed, 
plump and well-developed buds are frequently only produced at the 
top of the canes. 

8. Ripening the Canes. The ordinary method, towards the end 
of the season, when the Vines are fully grown and show signs of 
ripening, which they will do naturally, is to give gradually more air 
and less water, and after a short time to allow them to be fully 


exposed or removed to the open air. The plants, however, should 
never be allowed to flag or to suffer by the want of water. This is a 
practice followed by some cultivators, which is calculated to seriously 
injure the Vines. 

The Production of Fruiting Vines in Two or more Tears. The 
treatment to be followed is practically the same as that required for 
the one -year old Vines, with this difference, that instead of " eyes " to 
be propagated, it is young plants which have to be dealt with. In 
winter these young Vines should be cut down to one or two eyes or 
buds, and in January or February the pots should be placed in heat. 
As soon as the " eyes have started," the plants should be re-potted, the 
old soil being all shaken out and new soil applied. The smaller the 
pot that will contain the roots the better. These should be plunged 
in bottom-heat, and potted as required, and as already directed. 
These " cut-back " Vines having somewhat the start of the " eyes," 
generally form the largest and strongest plants. They ma} T be, and 
are sometimes, grown to a great size, and potted in large pots, when 
they produce enormous crops, some twenty-five or thirty bunches on a 
single Vine, notable examples of which have been often exhibited by 
Messrs. Lane & Son, of Berkhamstead. Some of these large Vines 
may be fruited in pots for several years. 

The Production of Pot Vines by Lowers. Mr. W. Miller, gardener 
at Combe Abbey, Coventry, practises another mode of raising pot 
Vines, viz., by layering, which is the simplest and easiest of all, 
and can be followed by any one in possession of a Vinery and a Vine, 
no elaborately heated propagating pit being required. This plan, as 
explained by Mr. Miller, consists in growing during the one season a 
young rod or two from near the base of the Vine it is wished to 
propagate ; then in the early spring following, having such a young 
cane provided, to train it along horizontally, and having placed a 
number of eight-inch or ten-inch pots, filled with good soil, in a row 
on the border, or on a convenient shelf, to fix the shoot firmly by a 
stout peg in each pot, to cover over with a little soil, and then to 
water thoroughly. The operation is then complete, and shoots are 
very speedily produced if the soil is kept in a properly moist condi- 
tion. Care must be taken to place the pots immediately under the 
eyos, and every eye thus placed produces a plant. Vines thus layered 
in April, if the Vines are in a growing state, may be cut away by the 
middle or end of May, the plants being then several feet in length, 
and the pots full of roots. 



'HE advantages derivable from growing Grape Vines in pots are 
various. Pot Vines are extremely handy, and may be utilised 
at any time and almost anywhere. It is, perhaps, not so difficult 
to obtain the fruit on the prepared plant as it is to grow the 
Vine itself. For an early supply of fruit, however, considerable care 
and attention are required, and failures are more common than 

The varieties best suited for fruiting in pots are the free-bearing 
kinds, such as Black Hamburgh, Royal Muscadine, Foster's White 
Seedling, and, indeed, all the Chasselas group, Madresfield Court, 
Royal Ascot, and Alicante. The Muscat of Alexandria is difficult to 
cultivate in pots, and Gros Guillaume scarcely shows any fruit. 

The forcing of pot Grapes may commence in November, or at any. 
subsequent period. Those selected for early forcing should be the 
earliest ripened, and the canes should have been pruned quite 
a month before their introduction to heat, otherwise they may bleed. 
The use of well-ripened canes is a most important matter for early 

A low house or pit is the most suitable for pot Vines. They have 
simply to be placed on a shelf along the front ; or the pots plunged 
in a slight hot-bed, the rods or canes being allowed to hang loosely 
until such time as the buds commence swelling. The temperature at 
first should not exceed 50 Q by artificial heat, but must be increased as 
the eyes break and growth begins to 60, and about the flowering- 
period to 70 or thereabouts. With sun-heat the temperature should, 
of course, range much higher, but in this respect the treatment of pot 
Vines as regards general management, atmospheric conditions, ventila- 
tion of the house, etc., is exactly similar to that of the ordinary 

At Syon House, Brentford, the seat of the Duke of Northumber- 
land, pot Grapes have for many years been a special feature. The 
late Mr. Woodbridge used to commence forcing the first week in 
November, so as to have Grapes ripe about the end of March or the 
beginning of April. He commenced with a temperature of 60, 
rising 3 or 4 as the buds broke, and gradually increased it to 70 or 
75 by the time they were in flower, then lowering it to 68 until they 
had done stoning, etc., when it was again raised to 70 until the 



Grapes began colouring. Mr. Woodbridge allowed a rise of 5 by 
fire-heat on dull days, and 10 more by sun-heat, giving more air as the 
temperature rose. The pots used were eleven inches in diameter. 

After the Vines are placed in heat, water must be very sparingly 
applied for some time, until the roots commence growing ; otherwise 
the soil will become sour and the roots will decay, so that it is better 
to allow them to become a little dry than the reverse. As the plants 
come into full leaf a copious supply of water will be required. Whilst 
the fruit is ripening the most extreme care is necessary especially if 
the crop is a heavy one to maintain the Vines in a thoroughly healthy 
state. Careless watering, such as allowing the plants to flag one day 
and to be soddened the next, will destroy the best of crops ; indeed, 
more failures are attributable to careless watering than to any other 
cause. Liquid manure should be frequently given to the healthy 

Re-potting is, as a rule, seldom required ; but if a Vine should 
chance to get into a sickly condition, it is better to re-pot. The best 
time to do this is about the period of the setting of the Grapes, the 
roots being then in an active state, so that they soon take to the new 
soil. If re-potted earlier, we have found them to show badly, and 
thereby fail to produce a crop. Top-dressings of manure and soil, 
or of soil mixed with horn or bone shavings, etc., should be freely 

Some difficulty is often experienced in getting the early-forced 
Vines to break regularly. When this is so, the canes should be bent 
so that the backward eyes may be the most elevated, which wiJl help 
them to develop into strong shoots. 

As to their cropping capabilities, a strong Black Hamburgh Vine, in 
a twelve-inch pot, may be allowed to bear eight or ten pounds weight 
of Grapes from six to eight fair-sized bunches. A Royal Muscadine 
Vine should bear from ten to twelve bunches ; but all this is 
dependent upon the health and strength of the plant. It is better 
to under-crop than over-crop pot Vines, for the fruit on those over- 
cropped is sour and useless. 

Modes of Training Pot Vines, etc. The ordinary or utilitarian' 
method is to train them to a fixed trellis, the Vines being placed about 
two feet apart, so that when the side shoots with the fruit, etc., are 
trained out, the whole trellis may be covered. Another mode is to 
twist the canes coil fashion round two or three strong stakes placed in 
the pot, thus giving the plants when fully grown the appearance of 
columnar bushes. Another mode is to train the shoots so as to form 
a sort of umbrella-shaped head, with the bunches hanging round. 
These latter are all more or less graceful and ornamental, and the 
Grape Vine is truly ornamental 





VERY pretty system is that of rooting the stems of a Vine in 
small pots, and when the Grapes are ripe, dissevering the canes 
from the parent stock, then objects of ornament for the dinner 
table or elsewhere are provided. This is shown in the illustra- 

here given, fig. 31, which represents a pot Vine grown and 


exhibited by Mr. Sage when gardener at Ashridge Park, who was 
very successful in cultivating the Vine in this manner. 

Mr. Sage's method of obtaining such excellent examples was as 


follows : When the Vines are about to be started into growth, iron 
standards are fixed in the ground near to the Vines, these standards 
"being provided with rings at the top suitable for holding or supporting 
the pots in which the Vines are to be layered. The rod or cane of 
the Vine is taken through the bottom of the pot to the length 
required, and then tied, the shoots being afterwards trained to a wire 
frame or trellis which is placed in the pot for that purpose. As the 
buds break all those below the pot are rubbed off, and when those 
above have obtained a length of seven or eight inches, they are 
stopped in the usual way. 

The pots being filled with suitably prepared soil, which must be 
pressed down rather firmly, some Selaginella is planted on the surface, 
and the whole is well watered. As the pots become filled with roots 
constant attention to watering is required. When the Grapes are ripe 
the cane is cut through by degrees close to the bottom of the pot, arid 
the plant is found to be established in the small pot. 

The size of pot mostly used for this purpose is that which is termed 
a thirty-two (six-inch) or a twenty-four (eight-inch), but plants of any 
size almost may be thus layered, and grown in any form which fancy 
may dictate. 

Another very pretty mode of obtaining small fruiting Vines in pots 
for dinner-table decoration, is that noticed by Mr. Anderson in the 
Gardeners' Chronicle, N.S., viii., 103, as having been practised by Mr. 
Lewin, gardener at Drumpellier, Scotland. This consists simply in 
placing the pot Vine on a shelf, and training it horizontally along, and 
subsequently placing five-inch pots filled with soil underneath. The 
Vine is then allowed to form roots into the pots, which it does quite 
readily, and the shoots on which the fruit is borne being trained 
upright, are cut away when fully rooted. Thus several small " Tom 
Thumb " Vines, with one or two ripe bunches, are obtained from a 
single plant. 




already stated, the Vine may be grown in a very circumscribed 
space, and under very diverse conditions. The cottager with 
his single rod of ground may, by aid of old Father Sol and a 
few squares of glass, supplemented by care and attention, 
produce his own Grapes nearly equal to those of his lordly neighbour 
with his costly Vineries and gardening skill. Thanks to the introduc- 

^- \ 

*=] f= 

1 1 1 1 1 



tion of cheap glass, and the examples of such worthy men as the late 
Mr. Thomas Rivers, Dr. Newington, and Mr. Harrison Weir, the 
success of ground Vineries has been thoroughly established. 

The magnificent examples of Grapes grown in ground Vineries by 
Mr. Weir, consisting of such varieties as Black Hamburgh, Muscat 


Hamburgh, Muscat of Alexandria, and especially of Muscat Champion, 
all of which have been exhibited to the Fruit Committee of the Koyal 
Horticultural Society, have proved to be of very superior quality. 
Mr. Weir has kindly furnished the following particulars as to his 
mode of culture, which we here give verbatim : 

" The Vineries should be made of good yellow deal, and well 
painted with patent indestructible paint, then glazed, and if putty 
is used it should be painted over afterwards. I prefer a dark 
chocolate, as it prevents the lines of the Vinery being seen and 
looking unsightly, as they do when painted white. This is, of course, 
a matter of taste, and makes no difference to the growth of the Vine. 
The glass should be clear and stout, twenty-one-oz. is the best, for if 
too thin there are more breakages. 

" The Vinery should be made in a form and size shown in fig. 32. 
The Vines should be planted inside the Vinery, and trained along the 
top, not to the structure itself, but tied to a stout strong pole going 
the whole length of the Vinery, and hung somewhat from it, so that 
the string or fastening may not be tight. The lights should never be 
taken off, neither summer nor winter for a permanence, nor even left 
off for a single night, unless it be very hot weather, and for the 
purpose of ripening the wood. The bunches of fruit should be 
thinned in the usual way, and not too many bunches left on, as that 
will retard the ripening. 

" Nearly all the cool-house Vines may be grown in this way, and, 
in most instances, with great success ; but, of course, much depends, 
on soil and situation." 

The Vinery, fig. 32, is seven feet in length, one foot ten inches 
wide, the sloping ends each two feet eight inches, and the height 
from ground line one foot ten inches. The ends are of wood, with an 
air-hole for ventilation, provided with a door to be closed when 

As Mr. Weir observes, "much depends on soil and situation. " 
There would be little hope of succeeding with ground Vineries in a 
cold, low situation. An open, dry, sunny situation, such as that 
enjoyed by Mr. Weir, at Brenchley, Kent, is the sort of place to 
achieve success. Soil is of less importance, because that can be 
supplied, but a good climate is essential. 




'HIS noble Vinery was originally erected as a Plant Conservatory, 
I forming the first portion of a grand building in the form of a + 
with a central dome, projected for erection in the Horticultural 
Gardens at Chiswick, when Chiswick was at its zenith, and the 
leader of horticultural progress. It was built by Messrs. Bailey, of 
London, nearly sixty years ago, and, as we were informed by the late 
Mr. R. Thompson, the cost was something about four thousand five 
hundred pounds, a heavy duty then existing on glass. It is a span- 
roof curvilinear structure of iron and glass, one hundred and eighty 
feet in length, thirty feet in width and twenty-six feet high, running 
east and west, and heated by two of Stevenson's patent boilers, fixed 
by Messrs. Burbidge and Healy. Ventilation is obtained by venti- 
lators on both sides over the piping, and from a ridge lantern ; this 
although apparently very limited, is very perfect and quite sufficient. 

In the year 1857, the cultivation of plants having been abandoned, 
it was proposed by the late Mr. G. McEwen, then superintendent of 
the Gardens, to plant it with a collection of Vines, and this was 
accordingly done. Borders on the most limited scale were prepared, 
both inside and outside ; that on the outside was about five feet in 
width, bounded by a broad gravel walk on a raised terrace ; and that 
inside the house was about nine or twelve inches in depth, and formed 
on the surface of the stone pavement of the conservatory. 

There was much speculation as to whether Grapes would succeed 
in so large a structure. The pessimists predicted that scorching and 
burning would prevail, and that under so much glare and light and 
with so little ventilation, the Vines would never succeed ; and it 
seemed, for the first year or two, that such would be the' result, for 
whether from mismanagement, or from some other cause, the Vines 
did very badly, and in 1858 were nearly destroyed by mildew. 

In the year ] 859 it was our lot to take charge of this Vinery, and 
under careful management we may truly say that the young Vines 
rapidly improved, and year by year they have borne excellent crops of 
fruit, which have been reported on from time to time by the horti- 
cultural press. 

The Vines were at first planted alternately in the inside and outside 
borders, and for several years, by means of heavy mulching and top- 


dressing of the inside borders, the vigour of the inside Vines was 
maintained nearly equal to that of those planted in the outside 
borders, but gradually they became weaker, and it was at length 
determined to destroy all those inside the house, and to extend 
those in the outside borders. The gravel walk on the top of the 
terrace was removed to its base, and the border was extended to a 
width of fifteen feet, as it now exists. Fresh soil fresh to the Vines 
at least, for it was but the top spit cut from the lawn in the garden 
with a mixture of ground bones, manure and burnt ashes being 
supplied, the Vines grew with increased vigour, and the first year 
after losing all the inside Vines, the crop was greater than before. The 
finest Grapes were probably produced when the Vines were from six 
to ten years old, and those 011 the south side have always been superior 
to those on the north, from the greater amount of shade, no doubt, 
injuriously affecting the latter. 

The Vines are pruned on the spur system, the length of the rod 
from the base to the apex being about thirty feet. Thus it takes 
from five to seven years to reach their limit, by which time the lower 
spurs show signs of weakness, the best fruit being always produced 
on the younger wood at the top. To maintain their vigour, a supply 
of young rods is provided, and the old stems from time to time cut 
out. Thus gradually the Vines have extended from one stem or rod 
to many, forming a good example of what is termed the extension 

A great number of varieties were at first planted, thus affording an 
excellent opportunity for the determination of their distinctive 
characters, which up to that time there had been no opportunity of 
doing so well. The Fruit Committee having been established about 
the same period, frequent investigations of the Grapes growing at 
Chiswick were made by that body, and correct descriptions of the 
different varieties were, at the same time, drawn up very carefully by 
its secretary, Dr. Hogg. 

Many of the varieties originally planted proving to be utterly 
worthless, were cut down and grafted with other sorts. This pro- 
ceeding afforded some interesting illustrations of the suitability of 
Vine-stocks. So far, however, no very correct basis has been secured, 
as many unknown worthless varieties were grafted with others equally 
worthless. A few cases, however, are worthy of mention. Thus 
Gros Guillaume worked on an adjoining rod of the Black Hamburgh 
produced fruit much superior to that on its own roots, and very 
similar to that of the Black Hamburgh, but this peculiarity continued 
only for a few years. Muscat of Alexandria grafted on a late Spanish 
Grape, although situated at the warmest end of the house, has every 
year produced fruit later and inferior to that on its own roots. 
Black Hamburgh worked on Blussard Noir always produces bunches 
and berries smaller than the others. Muscat Hamburgh grafted on 




Siderites (Smyrna), a large, late variety, proved so inferior in quality 
and appearance that the members of the Fruit Committee failed to 
recognise it as "being the same variety. 


At the present time the varieties cultivated are chiefly those 
standard sorts which have been found suited to the house, viz., Black 
Hamburgh or Frankenthal, which is the best of all, Alicante, Gros 
Guillaume, Madresfield Court, Gros Colman, Lady Downe's Seedling, 
Black Prince, Black Monukka, West's St. Peter's, Dutch Hamburgh, 
Buckland Sweetwater, Raisin de Calabre, and Muscat of Alexandria. 

The greatest number of bunches produced in one season was four 
thousand five hundred, their aggregate weight being somewhat over 
two tons. 

The ladder employed for gaming access to the Grapes deserves a 
word of mention. This is formed of wrought angle iron, and runs on 
wheels, being moved with ease by one .man at each side. It is so- 
constructed that the men, in whatever position, are within easy reach 
of the Vines. From ten to twenty men may be at work on it at one 
time. It was constructed at a cost of thirty pounds, from designs 
supplied by us to a working blacksmith in Hammersmith, and has 
been found to effect an immense saving in labour and glass over the 
ordinary ladders formerly in use. The illustration, fig. 33, which 
shows the ladder in situ, is taken from a photograph. 




'HERE is no doubt of the fact that in former years Grapes were 
I much more extensively grown in the open air in this country 
than they are at the present time. This may be ascribed to 
various causes, and among others to the following : 

1. The introduction of cheap glass, whereby structures may be 
erected at a moderate cost, for the cultivation of the Grape Vine with 
a considerable degree of certainty. It is not to be supposed that in 
olden times the seasons were always propitious and suitable for Vine 
growing any more than they are at the present day ; although we read 
of Mr. Joseph Kirke exhibiting, before the Royal Horticultural 
Society in 1818, Royal Muscadine Grapes grown on open standard 
Vines, which were said to be of very good quality. 

2. The Mildew, the intrusion of which scourge to the Vine, in the 
year 1847, has rendered its cultivation in the open air in this country 
extremely precarious. Although sulphur is well known as a remedy, 
its application to Vines in the open air is not so easy to accomplish, 
and, therefore, not so effectual in its results as could be desired. It 
is very seldom now that out-door Grapes entirely escape this malady. 

3. A series of Gold Sunless Seasons, in which the out-door Grapes 
have seldom ripened, so that their cultivation has gradually come to 
be abandoned. 

If a little more attention to the proper cultivation of the plant, and 
to the thinning and taking care of the fruit, were given, no doubt 
better results would follow ; and it seems a pity we do not see Vines 
more frequently adorning the walls of our cottage homes in the more 
southern parts of the country. There the Grape Vine is not only 
ornamental but useful. As a plant it is perfectly hardy, and it grows 
freely. In spring the young shoots are sometimes injured by late frosts, 
and in cold seasons the wood does not ripen thoroughly, but it is 
the fruit that is tender, and that only in so far as it generally require^ 
more heat than our climate affords it to ripen. 

In regard to cultivation on open walls we may note : 

1. Soil. The Vine will grow in any good garden soil, provided it 
is freely exposed to light and air, and well drained ; the more of a 
loamy character it has, and the fresher it is, the better. Before 
planting, the soil should be well dug or trenched to a fair depth, and 
some good manure, ground bones, etc., applied. 

2. Position. This must be warm and sheltered, on a wall facing 
the south, or a roof sloping to the same aspect. It is useless to plant 
Vines in this country on any other aspect. 


3. Planting. This should be done as early in the autumn as 
possible, so that the roots may get into action before winter, otherwise 
it is better deferred till spring is well advanced. 

"For planting Vines the blush of spring is best, 
or else autumnal cold." 

4. Pruning and Training. This must to a certain extent be very 
similar to the practice adopted under glass. Vines to be trained to 
single stems should be planted about three feet apart, and pruned on 
the spur system, the shoots or spurs being allowed to form at about 
fifteen inches apart. It is preferable, however, to allow Vines on open 
walls to cover a greater space, and to have many stems or branches. 
These may be trained in an upright or vertical direction, at about 
eighteen inches apart, and may be pruned on the spur system ; a 
preferable method, however, is that of training the stems in a 
horizontal direction. Thus, at the first pruning, the Vine is cut down 
to a height of about eighteen inches, and three shoots or stems trained 
up the first year ; at the winter pruning one of these branches is 
trained out horizontally to the right, the other to the left ; these being 
pruned according to their strength to four or five feet in length, form 
the first or lower tier of branches on which the fruiting shoots or spurs 
are to be produced. The third shoot is trained upright ; if strong it 
may be pruned to four or five feet long, and the following season one 
or more side branches added in a similar manner, the distance apart 
being fully eighteen inches. The fruit-bearing shoots may be about 
twelve inches apart, and all nailed in on the upper side of the branches 
only. Vines so trained may be extended to any distance, and pruned 
in winter in the usual manner. Disbudding must be carefully 
attended to, and the bearing shoots regularly stopped at one leaf 
beyond the fruit, and all the lateral shoots subsequently produced 
must be carefully removed. 

To secure the best results the bunches and berries should be 
carefully thinned, and in the case of white Grapes, fully exposed 
during the ripening period to the rays of the sun. If long straggling 
bunches are produced, it is better to shorten them, as short compact 
bunches ripen best. 

In regard to the most suitable varieties for cultivation in the open 
air, the greater portion of the SweetAvater section, with a few of the 
smaller Muscats, will be found more or less suitable. In France the 
variety met with is invariably the Chasselas de Fontainebleau, which 
in this country is known as the Royal Muscadine. As grown in 
France, with the beautiful cinnamon-russet colour, it is very rich and 

g'.easant. The Royal Muscadine is, at the present time, the leading 
rape for out-door culture. A much better variety, not yet sufficiently 
well known, is the Chasselas Vibert, which produces larger berries 
and ripens about a week earlier than the Royal Muscadine ; Ascot 
Citronelle and Grove End SweetAvater, Miller's Burgundy, Black July 


and Gamay noir may also be recommended. In some warm seasons 
the Black Hamburgh ripens its fruit very well. 

In seasons when the Grapes on open walls do not ripen thoroughly 
or sufficiently to be used for dessert, they may be made into very 
wholesome wine. Mr. Fenn, when at Woodstock Rectory, submitted 
to the Fruit Committee some examples of wine made from Grapes 
grown in the open air at that place, which were considered to be 
of excellent quality, and met with the highest approbation. Ilalf- 
ripened Grapes make also an excellent preserve. We have tasted 
some excellent Grape jelly made by Mrs. Wildsmith, at Heckfield, 
from the thinnings of half-ripened fruit. 

At Thomery, near Fontainebleau, Grapes are cultivated largely on 
walls, and the training attended to with very great care, the general 
result being extremely satisfactory. The method practised is simply 
that of planting a number of Vines at twenty inches apart, and so 
arranging that each Vine is trained horizontally at different heights of 
the wall. This, when well carried out, is extremely pretty, but 
entails much skill and labour in the training or formation of the 




'HE Vineyard at Castle Coch was planted in the spring of 1875, 
on the French system, as practised in the neighbourhood of 
Paris, Burgundy, and in the Champagne district. The Vine- 
yard lies to the south of the Castle, at a somewhat lower level, 
with a gentle slope to the south, and from the nature of the ground, 
it requires no artificial drainage. The soil, two feet deep, is a light 
fibrous loam, resting on limestone rock. The Vines are planted in 
rows from north to south, three feet apart, and the plants are three 
feet apart in the rows, and trained to stakes four feet high, and pruned 
to within three buds of the previous year's growth every year. 

The first wine was made in 1877. The crop was not a heavy one, 
but sufficient to make about forty gallons of wine. In 1878 the crop 
of Grapes was better, but in the two following years it was a complete 
failure, owing to the cold, wet and sunless summer of 1879, in which 
the canes did not ripen. There was a good crop in 1881, the wine was 
of the best quality, and pronounced by the Fruit Committee of the 
Royal Horticultural Society to resemble a first-class still champagne. 
The whole of the vintage (except a few dozen) was sold readily at 60*. 
per dozen. The years 1882 and 1883 were complete failures, in which 
no wine was made ; but since 1884 more or less wine has been made 
every year. 

In the Jubilee year (1887) the vintage produced nine hogsheads of 
excellent wine ; the crop was the largest and best ripened since the 
Vines were planted. Lord Bute is so far satisfied with the results of 
the experiment, that he has begun planting a large Vineyard on his 
estate at Swanbridge, and a smaller one at St. Quentin's, near 
Cowbridge, with the idea of further experimenting upon the soil and 
situation best adapted for the cultivation of the Vine in the open air 
in South Wales. The variety found to prove the sturdiest and to 
answer best is named Gamay Noir, a variety which is grown largely 
in the south of France for wine making. 




'HE extraordinary increase in the cultivation of Grapes for sale or 
I market purposes, and the rapid development of the trade in this 
fruit during the past few years is altogether of a very remarkable 
character. No other fruit, excepting the Tomato, has ever 
advanced so rapidly into popularity and general use. A few years 
ago, Grapes could only be obtained by the wealthy in small quantities, 
and at high prices ; now they form a staple article of commerce, and 
may be obtained in abundance and at a moderate price in all parts 
of the country, and at all seasons. 

It is important to note the causes which have led to this result. 
Partly, no doubt, it i* owing to the introduction into cultivation of 
good late-keeping varieties of Grapes. Chiefly, however, it is due to 
the Tomato. Extraordinary as it may at first appear, it is the great 
popularity and demand for Tomatos which has rendered the cultiva- 
tion and the present enormous supply of Grapes possible. Both crops 
requiring much the same treatment, houses erected for Grapes are at 
lirst cropped with Tomatos, which producing an immediate return help 
the growers to tide over the first two or three years whilst the Vines 
are getting established ; in this way we are provided with a bountiful 
supply of the most luscious and enjoyable fruit this earth produces. 

The magnitude of the trade in Grapes that has thus arisen is of the 
utmost importance, and can scarcely be over estimated. An enormous 
amount of capital has been called into requisition, and is engaged in the 
furtherance of this trade. Directly and indirectly many thousands 
find employment, and are thus benefited by Grape-growing. We do 
not ourselves know of any industry that can compare, or which has 
done so much in so short a time for the welfare of the people. The 
approximate supply in 1886 of what are termed English-grown Grapes, 
amounted to about 400 tons, one commission agent in Covent Garden 
(Mr. Monro) disposing of forty thousand baskets, or an equivalent of 
about two hundred and fifty tons. During the past year, 1891, this 
quantity has been greatly exceeded. The greatest quantity ever sold in 
one day was in October, 1891, and amounted to 4 tons = 750 baskets. 

The chief producing establishments are to be found within a com- 
paratively easy distance of London, so that the fruit may be delivered 
by van without the intervention of the railway ; the Grapes are thus 
obtained without a blemish in the best possible condition. Several of 
the Vineyards or Grape-growing establishments are of a leviathan 
character, whole fields being covered with glass, presenting in some 


parts of the country quite a novel feature in the landscape. Every 
year these are more and more extended. At the present time the 
largest growers are probably the Messrs. Kochford, who in their several 
establishments in the neighbourhood of Cheshunt, Broxbourne, etc., 
have over fifty acres covered with glass, about one half of which is 
planted with Grapes, from which they calculate to produce about 
300 tons a year, when the Vines come into full bearing an acre of 
ground covered with glass being estimated to produce fifteen tons of 
Grapes annually. Reckoning the value of the crop at 2s. perlb., the 
gross return per acre thus amounts to 3,360. Of other large growers 
in the London district may be named Mr. Peter Kay, of Finchley ; 
Mr. Ladds, of Eexley and Swanley Mr. Sweet, of Whetstone, and 
many others. 

Another great centre for Grape-growing has arisen at Worthing, in 
Sussex, from whence some 300 tons are sent to Covent Garden 
every year, and is still extending; the principal growers are 
Mr. K Piper, Mr. Bushby, Mr. G. Eussell, Mr. Sams, and Mr. 
Beer. In Scotland also, Grapes are largely grown for London 
markets by Messrs. Thomson & Sons, at Clovenfords, Galashiels; 
and Mr. D. Beatson, of Kirkaldy. Of Grapes grown in the Channel 
Islands, especially Guernsey, the quantity is simply enormous. 
According to official returns in 1876 the shipments, via Southampton, 
amounted to 50 tons, whilst in 1886, ten years later, the total was 
over 500 tons, of which one salesman in Covent Garden, Mr. G. 
Monro, sold on commission over 300 tons, and in 1890-1 about 
350 tons. Although the production has very greatly increased, 
the quantity sent to Covent Garden does not appear so great, 
increased facilities for transmission having spread the trade in these 
low-priced Grapes to the provincial towns, Mr. Monro, for example, 
selling in Manchester, on commission last year, over eighty tons of fruit. 

Twenty or thirty years ago the best Grapes that were to be seen in 
Covent Garden were chiefly the produce of private establishments. 
Now very few of these are received. This is partly owing to the 
superior quality of the Grapes grown by the market men, and partly 
to the great fall in prices, the returns for small quantities being 
barely sufficient to pay expenses. 

Market Grapes. Of varieties grown for market, the chief for early 
and summer use, up to the month of December, is the Black Ham- 
burgh ; succeeding this, for late use, is the Gros Colman. No other 
Grapes command the market to any extent. Lady Downe's Seedling, 
a few years ago, was the favourite late Grape ; now it is of 
comparatively little value. Black Alicante commands a fair price 
up to a certain period, and Madresfield Court is approved as an early 
sort. Amongst white Grapes, the Muscat of Alexandria is the first 
favourite, and Buckland Sweetwater second. 

Culture, Soils, Manures, etc. There is no practical difference 


between Grape-growing for market and that for private establishments, 
only that it is carried on in larger houses for the former and with an 
all-absorbing one-idea object profit. By avoiding mixed collections 
and cultivating only one sort in a house, market growers are enabled 
to give that variety whatever special treatment it may require, which 
in itself is a great element of success. The houses on being erected 
are for the first two or three years devoted to the cultivation 
of Tomatos, the Vines, although planted in the usual manner, 
receiving quite a minor share of attention for a year or two until they 
require the space. Then the Tomatos have to give place, and more 
glass has to be erected for. their cultivation, and so on, extension 
becoming almost compulsory. In regard to soils, market growers 
are not very particular, generally using whatever is most convenient ; 
the better the soil, 110 doubt the greater the success. This is an 
important matter to take into consideration in establishing a Vine- 
yard. One of the most successful cultivators, Mr. Kay, of Finchley, 
is favoured with the finest of soil a somewhat heavy yellow loam, 
which is used unsparingly mixed with bones, Thomson's Vine Manure, 
etc. ; Mr. Ladds uses soil much inferior, manuring heavily with farm- 
yard manures. The Messrs. Kochford having a good loamy soil, 
with a gravelly subsoil, simply trench the land and plant the Vines, 
using no manure until they are in fruiting condition ; Messrs. 
Thomson's soil at Clovenfords is inferior, but by using Thomson's 
Vine Manure magnificent Grapes are grown. Mr. Bashf ord's Vineyard, 
in Jersey, is on the site of an old brickfield all manner of soils which, 
before planting, were roughly analysed and manurial substances added, 
chiefly phosphates, of which they were found destitute. Mr. Pond's 
Vineries in Jersey are situate on the side of a steep, rocky hill, tier 
above tier. In Guernsey, Grape Vines may be found growing in hot 
thin soil, or in heavy loam, and in soils showing a high percentage 
of sand ; in the one case they naturally require much water, in the 
other drainage, and where these reasonable requirements are attended 
to, fairly good results are obtained in either. All kinds of manures 
have been tried on Vines with varying success ; it becomes to a great 
extent a matter of practical experience, not any manure being quite 
suitable for all soils. 

Keeping the Fruit. A portion of the late Grapes sent to market 
are cut and kept in bottles of water, as described at p. 65, some of the 
growers having Grape rooms erected for that special purpose. One of 
the largest and best we have seen is that at Mr. Bashford's, St. 
Saviour's, which contains, Avhen filled, ten thousand bunches ; it is one 
hundred and thirty-six feet long and twenty feet wide, having four 
double and two single racks the entire length of the house. Mr. Kay, 
of Finchley, and Messrs. Kochford prefer keeping their Grapes on the 
Vines, and this is the plan now generally adopted by the growers for 
market, shading the houses with thick canvas, etc., and keeping a cool, 



still, dry atmosphere, if possible without fire heat : in this way many 
tons of Grapes are kept fresh and plump until the very end of 
March, most successfully. At Messrs. Kochford's, in the month of 
February last, 1892, we observed over twenty tons of Grapes in fine 
condition, still hanging on the Vines. 

Prices. These vary according to season, and supply and demand. 
In our last edition, in 1886, we were favoured by Messrs. Webber, 
of Covent Garden, with the following list of prices taken from their 
sale book, showing such prices as were received during that year : 

February . . . 
March (began) 
,, (ended) 
April (old) ... 

,, (new) 

Best Black 3/-, 3/6, 4/- 



-, 2/3, 

Second Black, 2/- f 2/9 
2/6, 3/- 

3/6, 4/- 
2/-, 2/6 

Best Muscats 









2/-, 2/6 
2/-, 2/d 
2/6, 3/- 

-/9 I/-, 1/3 

/, V% 1/3 

-/, V- 

l/-, 1/5, 1/9 

Second Muscats 2/-, 2/6 



We then stated that these prices were from " 25 to 50 per cent, 
lower than they were in 1876, and would probably still decline." 
They have actually done so, the prices from Messrs. Webber's books of 
last year (1891) being 25 per cent, lower in every month (excepting 
October) than in 1886, and the tendency is still downward, although 
the prices at the present time seem to be as low as it would appeal- 
possible for tbem to pay, even with skill and capital combined. 
The chief growers do not, however, trouble themselves much after 
sensation prices. They base their calculations on the actual costs 
and gross returns ; and argue thus, that to sell a ton of Grapes at two 
shillings or three shillings per pound is better than, as formerly, to 
sell a few hundred pounds at ten shillings or twenty shillings per 
pound prices which were practically beyond the reach of the con- 
sumers. Cheap prices now enable retail fruiterers to maintain a 
supply on sale at all times, thus increasing the consumption. 

This fall in prices has a tendency to induce growers to crop too 
heavily, and in this way the general quality of the Grapes is not 





Common Grapes packed badly or damaged in transit, lose, as a rule, 
about one-half their value, whilst " best " lose frequently two-thirds. 
Higher prices than those quoted are occasionally received for excep- 
tionally good produce. Guernsey greenhouse Grapes, during the 
autumn months, make from threepence to eightpence per pound; 
extra good quality, one shilling or thereabouts. The highest prices 
are received for late Grapes during March and April. These are, 
however, subject to considerable discount on account of loss of weight 
through shrinking. One of the best growers estimates this at ten 
per cent, up to tfanuary, and as much as twenty- five per cent, up to 
March, so that a hundred pounds of Grapes on December 1st are 


reduced to about seventy-five pounds in March. Thus the higher 
price received at the latter date is practically absorbed. An excellent 
illustration of this lately came under our notice. Of two houses, 
each a hundred feet long by twenty-five feet, containing Gros 
Colman, the crop apparently equal, the fruit in the first house, 
cut in December, weighed two thousand pounds, whilst that in the 


second, cut in March, weighed one thousand eight hundred pounds 
only - a loss of two hundred pounds by mere shrinking, the fruit 
having been otherwise well kept. 

Packing Grapes for Market. This is of the first importance, as the 
prices that may be realised greatly depend upon the condition in 
which the fruit is received in market. An immense quantity of good 
fruit is spoiled in transit through inefficient packing by amateur culti- 
vators ; regular growers of Grapes for sale seldom make any mistakes 
of this sort, but send their fruit to market in good condition in baskets 
specially adapted for this purpose. Of those used in Covent Garden 
Market, fig. 34 represents what is termed a " flat," that is, a flat 
hamper containing a basket in which the Grapes are placed, this basket 
being generally known as a " baby " basket, and such as is used for 
displaying the Grapes in shop windows. The Grapes, when cut, are 
simply placed in this basket stalk end upwards, a layer or two of tissue 
paper being placed over the bottom, or some soft dry moss or wood 



wool (cotton wool is objected to, as being too heating in warm 
weather, and it is not so elastic as moss) ; this is then placed in the 
square shallow hamper, as shown, and the lid closed down. This mode 
of packing is used for transit by rail from places not much more than 
twenty miles distant or thereabouts, where the railway guards and 
porters are accustomed to the regular handling of the goods. Fig. 
35 represents what is termed a " handle basket," recommended by Mr. 
"Webber as suitable for travelling from gardens where only the surplus 
stock is sold, no regular supply being sent to market. This basket is 
used for the transmission of all the Grapes from the Channel Islands, 
no packing is ever used beyond a sheet of paper ; the handle is found 



useful to lift by, and it also serves as a guard, preventing any other 
packages from being placed upon the Grapes. In the Channel Islands 
service, they are packed on the steamers in layers ten or twelve deep, 
hurdles being used to separate them from each other, and are generally 
received in excellent condition. They leave Guernsey by the steamer 
at about midday, and are delivered in London the same evening, in 
time for market the following morning. 

It is not advisable to send Grapes to market on a Saturday. 

Structures, etc. These are in general very large, low, span- 
roofed, and from one to two or three hundred feet in length. Some 
of Mr. Bashford's houses measure eight hundred and ninety feet in 
length by forty-four feet wide, and are remarkably well constructed. 
Mr. Kay's houses vary from one to two hundred feet in length and 
twenty-five feet in width, and are so low that the Vines may all be 
attended to without steps or ladders. Seven span-roofed houses lately 


erected by Mr. Kay measure four hundred feet in length by thirty- 
six feet six inches in width, occupying, with the borders outside and 
inside, exactly seven acres. 

Messrs. Rochford's structures are so large as scarcely to be called 
houses. They are mostly erected in great blocks like a number of 
span-roofed houses joined together, or what might be termed ridge 
and furrow roofs, covering the entire ground. Here is one block coverino- 
thiee and a half acres of land, another over four acres, and so on 
the individual spans twenty-eight feet wide and two hundred and 
eighty feet in length, and many others of nearly equal dimensions- 
all being efficiently heated. Mr. Thomson's houses at Clovenfords 
are about two hundred feet long, rather lofty, and at a very acute 

Fig. 36 represents the sort of boiler now most generally used by 
the market growers. These are made of all sizes, some we have 
seen in use being twenty-five feet in length. They are very powerful, 
simple, and easily repaired. 


English Grapes in America. A great trade in English winter 
Grapes seems likely to become established with America. During the 
past two seasons regular consignments of English Grapes have been 
sent from this country. They have been found to travel well and to 
arrive in good condition, and prove of superior quality to American 
produce during the winter season. They are sent by the Cunard 
steamers, reaching New York about ten days after being cut ; some 
are sold on arrival at New York, whilst others are sent on to 
Philadelphia, Boston, Pittsburgh, Chicago, etc. 


Grape growing in Belgium and France. It is not only in this 
country where the cultivation of Grapes under glass is receiving 
attention and is followed as a commercial pursuit. At Hoeilaert, 
near Brussels, and elsewhere in Belgium, a great industry has sprung 
up during the past twenty or so years, many acres of land being 
covered with glass, and devoted to the cultivation of Grapes, etc., 
for the supply of the Brussels and Paris markets. For some years 
the cultivation here was very crude, and the houses of the plainest 
and most primitive character. Fig. 37 is representative of the 
earlier style ; now, however, the culture is greatly improved. In 
France, also, the country where the Grape Vine is at home, and 
where le petit Ohasselas has long been esteemed as the best of all 
Grapes for dessert (the large varieties being condemned), we find two 
vast establishments at Bailleul and Koubaix, conducted by Messieurs. 
Phatzer et Cie., devoted to the cultivation of winter Grapes (chiefly 
Gros Colman) after the English system. The houses are very long 
span-roofed, and cover from three to four acres ; the cultivation here 
is excellent. The fruit is all disposed of in the Paris markets at prices, 
very much the same as Co vent Garden. 




'HERE are not many plants that are subject to so many forms of 
disease, etc., or are so easily injured as the Vine. Robust and 
vigorous as it seems in its rude green health, a very little neglect 
or a very little damage will soon arrest its progress and spoil its 
beauty. No plant pays better for the care and attention bestowed 
upon it than the Vine, or is so easily ruined by neglect. 

The word disease is here used in the broad sense in which it is 
generally taken, although it is scarcely an applicable term for " all the 
ills " to which the Vine is subject, the more important of which are 
the folio wing": Rust, Spot, Scalding, Warts on the leaves, "Bleeding," 
Shanking, Aerial roots, Fungus on the roots, Mildew, etc. On each 
of these it is proposed to offer a few observations. 

Rust. This is an affection or injury to the cuticle or skin of the 
berries, giving them a rusty appearance. It is caused whilst the skin 
is young and tender, about thinning time, and disfigures them even 
when ripe. When once it is produced there is no remedy ; the only 
thing that can be done when it is observed is to cut out the affected 
berries. Many views have been entertained and many opinions have 
been held as to the causes of rust. Touching the berries with the 

hand or with the hair of the head are 
some : it is well, therefore, not to 
touch or handle the berries in any 
way since they are so very easily 
bruised and spoiled. But these 
are not the chief causes of rust. 
Cold draughts of air are also 
suspected ; avoid therefore, cold 
draughts or currents of air whilst 
the Grapes are young, for they are 
very injurious, even if rust is not 
caused by them. Rust is most 
common in early houses, where 
a good deal of firing is required, 
and especially in those where the 
old-fashioned flues are still in use. 
An over-heated flue, with the 
inevitable dry parched atmosphere 
SPOT ON GRAPES. and occasional sulphurous fumes, 


will cause rust to a certainty, and so also will sulphur when applied to 
hot pipes, as is frequently done in order to destroy red-spider. It is 
good judgment, therefore, to avoid the use of sulphur whilst the 
berries are very young and tender. Later on the skin becomes more 
hardened and is not so easily injured. 

Spot, fig. 38. In some cases this appears to be constitutional, or, 
at all events, some varieties of Grapes are much more subject to this 
evil than others. It may be noted that where it is regarded as- 
" constitutional," the connection between the affected parts and the 
seeds and axis of the berry may be traced ; in other cases it is more 
superficial and apparently accidental, or the result of bad health- 
It is sudden in its action and sometimes very injurious. Muscats are, 
perhaps, more subject to spot than any other class of Grapes. On its- 
first appearance, which is when the Grapes are young, tender, and 
swelling fast, a small, irregular, whitish mark is seen on the side of 
the berry, as if it had been bruised in some way ; the pulp beneath 
dries up and a sort of contraction occurs, the berry soon assuming a 
one-sided irregular form, such as is represented in fig. 38. In cases- 
where the berries are much affected they should be cut out. 

By some cultivators the spot is believed to be caused by sudden 
chills, such as having the house very close and moist, and then 
suddenly, on some bright morning, admitting the external cold air too- 
freely and too abundantly. 

Scalding. This is a term applied to Grapes which appear as if they 
had been scalded * it generally occurs when the berries are about 
half grown. Sometimes it is but a few berries here and there which are 
affected, but frequently the entire side of the bunch is damaged, and 
we have seen cases of nearly the entire crop being lost, the berries 
being completely destroyed, as if scalded or parboiled. ThivS is 
caused through late or imperfect ventilation on some bright sunny 
morning, whilst the internal atmosphere, and even the berries, are- 
saturated with moisture. The varieties most subject to this affection 
are Muscat of Alexandria and Lady Downe's Seedling. 

Warts on the Leaves. These are merely small green excrescences 
that form on the back of the leaves, a sort of granulation or extravasa- 
tion of sap through the skin of the leaf ; they are injurious to the- 
leavcs, no doubt, as affecting respiration, etc., and are the outcome of 
some fit of ill-health on the part of the Vine. The affection may be 
caused by a too close warm, atmosphere saturated with moisture. A 
Vine badly affected by it is a long time in recovering. 

Bleeding. This is an overflow or out-pouring of watery sap, and is 
at times so severe that the Vines seem as if they would " bleed to- 
death." The Vine is furnished with an enormous supply of watery 
sap, which begins to flow very freely and with great force shortly 
before growth commences, and continues until the Vine is about in 
full leaf. The cause of "bleeding "is late pruning ; it results from 


the pores, which are naturally open for the flow of the sap, not 
having time to heal over and close up before the sap gets in motion. 
The preventative practice, therefore, is the best, and that is to prime 
as early as possible, and never whilst the buds are swelling. 

Various methods have been proposed to stop or arrest this bleeding, 
such as charring the cut ends of the shoots, or covering them with 
sealing wax, cut potatos, painters' knotting, or some of the various 
patent styptics. None of these, however, are effectual when once the 
bleeding has commenced. It seems almost impossible to close these 
pores or to arrest this extraordinary tide by artificial means. The 
painters' knotting will check it to a certain extent, so, we are told, 
will powdered alum ; but some cases are so bad as to baffle all our 
feeble attempts, and these must be left for Nature herself to cure. 

Shanking. Of all the perplexing maladies that affect Grapes, this 
is the most obscure; other agencies f may destroy a crop, or even the 
plants, much more speedily and completely, but there is no ill pertain- 
ing to Vines the true causes of which are so difficult to estimate and 
to grapple with as this. 

The term shanking is applied to denote the drying or withering-up 
of the stalks of the bunches and berries of Grapes. Sometimes it is 
only a berry or two that "shanks," at other times it is the whole 
bunch, and in extreme cases it may be the entire crop. '\ he period 
when shanking commences is just as the berries begin to change colour 
or to ripen, and it continues more or less in action until they are ripe. 
The berries that thus shank or lose the vitality of their stalks never 
colour or ripen, but become intensely sour and soon decay, and 
require to be cut out. In many cases all that the eye can detect is a 
minute black speck, or a ring round the stem or stalk of the berry ; in 
other cases the whole stem is quite blackened. It may be noted that 
shanking is far more prevalent amongst late Grapes than amongst early 
forced ones; and again, that it is but seldom seen amongst out-door 
Grapes ; while some varieties those of the Frontignan class to wit 
are far more subject to shanking than others, such as the Royal 

As to the causes of shanking, many and varied opinions have been 
given. It is not so much, we believe, the result of any special 
cause, as of a variety of concurrent causes. In a broad or general 
sense, shanking seems to be the result of some overstrain some bad 
condition of or injury to the feeding or respiratory organs of the Vine. 
Either the foliage has been in some way injured, or prevented from 
performing its proper functions, or the roots have got into bad con- 
dition, and cannot perform theirs ; or it may be that a combination of 
both these causes exists. As to the immediate or leading causes of 
shanking, we shall briefly call attention to some of the principal : 

1. Over-cropping. The crop of fruit must be regulated according 
to the strength of the Vine, and this may nearly be estimated by the 


amount of properly developed leaves ; so that an over-crop of fruit is 
tantamount to a scarcity of leaves and overstraining of the powers of 
the plant, and the result is shanking to a very serious extent. 

2. The destruction of the foliage by red-spider, burning, or other 
causes, which is equivalent to a scarcity of leaves. 

3. The stripping-off of a great quantity of fully-developed leaves 
at one time, as is frequently done by those who neglect timely stopping, 
which interference with the foliage affects, in a corresponding degree, 
the action of the roots, and leads to shanking. 

4. Chills or sudden changes of the temperature of the house, such 
as may be experienced on the change or approach of colder weather 
a very frequent occurrence in this climate ; the evil arising from 
neglect to reduce or regulate the amount of ventilation, or to use the 
heating apparatus, which, at such periods, is often, but erroneously, 
dispensed with. 

5. The roots getting into a cold subsoil, or the border becoming 
sour and soddened, whereby the young spongioles of the roots are 

6. Planting in borders composed of too rich materials, containing 
too much organic matter ; in consequence of which the Vines grow 
with great luxuriance, but seldom ripen the wood properly. The 
roots formed, although plentiful, are very soft and spongy ; they do 
not acquire firmness, but decay during the winter season, and, conse- 
quently, the next season a fresh supply of rootlets has to be produced ; 
and then, when the strain upon the energies of the Vine takes place 
by the demands of the advancing fruit crop, the roots are not in a 
proper condition to meet it, and, as a result, shanking ensues. This 
late production of roots, their decay in winter, and the subsequent 
shanking, may go on year after year. 

7. Excessive dryness at the roots, such as to cause injury to these 
organs. If the border is allowed to get over-dry whilst the Vines are 
in full growth, the young roots become paralysed, and if they are then 
deluged with water, they will, as a consequence, be certainly destroyed. 

These are several of the causes that directly or indirectly lead to 
shanking, acting either singly or in combination ; yet, when a case of 
shanking appears, it may be very difficult to trace it to its true origin, 
or to apply a remedy. Many of the above-named causes may be 
avoided by good management, as, indeed, they all should ; but where 
the roots are at fault, either through being in a border which is too rich 
or too wet and sour, the only remedy that can be adopted is to take 
the Vines up carefully and renew the border, taking care, if in a low 
or damp locality, to introduce a greater proportion of porous materials 
than before, so as to secure good drainage, and then to replant them. 

Adventitious, or Air-roots, fig. 39. These are so called from their 
being^produced on the stem of the Vine, and their being suspended in 
the air like so many threads, as represented by fig. 39. They are of 



the same character as the true roots, and only require to be brought 
into contact with the soil to become such. These air-roots are some- 
times produced in great profusion from every part of the stem, frequently 
attaining a foot or more in length, and so give the Vine a strange 

There is no particular harm in these adventitious roots, per se, but 


their presence betokens a want of proper action on the part of the true 
roots running naturally in the soil. They are a sign of bad health, and 
are frequently the precursors of shanking. They give evidence that 
the proper roots are not in a condition to supply the great demands of 
a large expanse of foliage, etc , and that, aided by a warm moist atmo- 
sphere within the house, nature is trying to supply this want. Close 


warmth and moisture will induce the formation of such roots from 
Vine-stems at any time. But if the true roots in the border are in a 
perfectly congenial condition, no air or adventitious roots will be 
produced in any ordinarily well-managed Vinery. They are, in short, 
the result mainly of the roots being in a cold wet border. To pre- 
vent their formation, or to recover Vines subject to this evil, the 
amelioration of the borders must be seen to. Some varieties of Vines, 
such as those of the Frontignan class, being of a more tender consti- 
tution, are more subject to the formation of air -roots than others. 
When they are produced, they need not be cut off, except for appear- 
ance sake, for they will wither up and die as the wood ripens. 

Fungus on the Roots. This is not of very frequent occurrence, yet 
it is of very serious import where it does find a footing, and should 
be carefully guarded against. The difficulty of dealing with it is the 
want of knowledge of its existence until the Vines are, perhaps, 
killed through its effects. The healthy Vines of one season may in the 
next, when apparently in the fullest vigour, suddenly droop and flag 
and die, and upon examination of the roots it is found that they 
are completely covered with small white threads, these being the 
mycelium or spawn of some fungus which has generated from decaying 
vegetable matter that has got into the border. The most fertile 
agents in producing fungi are bits of wood, especially Beech mast, or 
the broken stems or branches of trees. The scraps of sticks, etc., 
soon get covered with a mycelium in the form of what has been 
called Himartie, which soon spreads to living roots with which it comes 
in contact and soon decomposes. Plants of every kind as well as 
Vines suffer from it, and either become unhealthy or die ; therefore, 
these should all be rigidly excluded in the formation of Vine borders. 
In some cases where it has not gone too far, pruning off the affected 
roots and cleansing the soil from the noxious matter is effectual in 
arresting its progress. 

Mildew, Oidium Tuckeri t fig 40. This is a fungoid growth upon 
the young leaves and fruit of the Vine, and was not generally known 
in this country until the year 1847. Long prior to this, however, 
in the year 1831 or 1832, the Kev. M. J. Berkeley observed the 
appearance of this mildew in the Vinery of Mr. J. Slater, of Margate, 
which was under the care of Mr. Tucker, and suggested to him the 
use of flowers of sulphur, with which he readily complied, and 
succeeded in driving out the pest. An account of this was given by 
Mr. Tucker in the Kentish Gazette, hence it received the name 
Oidium Tuclccri. In America it had, however, been known to exist 
for many years previously, although, singularly enough, the American 
varieties of Grapes are not much affected by it. In. this country it 
has caused great destruction among Grapes, both in Vineries and in 
f hfi onen air, and in Vine-growing countries the entire season's crop 
is frequently destroyed by its agency. 



This mildew appears to the naked eye like a little white powder 
only, resting on the leaves, etc., but by the aid of the magnifying 
glass it is seen to be a true vegetable parasitical growth, as we see it 
represented by the accompanying figure. It is a most insidious 
enemy and requires extreme watchfulness, so as to observe its very 
earliest appearance in order to check its progress. It vegetates very 
rapidly ; from a small speck it will, in the course of a few days, spread 
over an entire house, and if not arrested in its growth, its threads will 
have penetrated so deeply into the tissues of the affected parts as to 
completely destroy them. The mildew itself may be arrested and 
killed, but its effects remain, the skin or cuticle of the berry being 
blackened and injured beyond recovery. It seems to render the berry 
incapable of distending further, so that it soon splits open, and is, of 
course, ruined. The tissues of the leaves are also injured in much 
the same way. 

GERMINATING ( x 200 dia.). 

As to the causes of the Vine mildew, they are, like those of most 
other diseases, very difficult to trace. It is sufficient that it does 
exist. Certain atmospherical conditions are favourable to its develop- 
ment, as to that of all fungoid growth. There is no more fertile 
source than cold, damp, sunless weather, with a stagnant atmosphere, 
and especially if this is succeeded by bright sunshine. Of Vines 
grown in the open air, there is seldom a season in which they are 
not affected to some extent, but frequently it occurs so late in the 
season as practically to do but little harm. 

The prevention of mildew ought, if possible, to be the chief 
endeavour of all Vine-growers ; and in houses or vineries its inroads 
may almost be prevented. In the open air, it is much more difficult 


to grapple with. As a stagnant atmosphere is favourable to its 
development, it naturally follows that one of the surest preventives is. 
air plenty of sweet fresh air and this can be secured to a great 
extent by proper ventilation, and a judicious use of the heating 
apparatus to set the air in motion. Where this is not available, a, 
drier atmosphere should be maintained during the cold, damp weather, 
avoiding all unnecessary syringing or damping. 

To arrest or destroy the mildew where it has once obtained a footing 
many and varied means have been recommended and adopted. The 
most effective indeed, the only truly effective agent is sulphur, or 
certain compounds of which sulphur forms the major part. It is 
chiefly in regard to the method of application that the distinction 
between the various agents is made. Firstly, let it be noted that 
the sulphur must not be ignited in any way ; that would, to a cer- 
tainty, not only destroy the mildew, but also the Vines themselves. 
We have seen Vines so treated and so destroyed. As a preventive, or 
safeguard, it is not a bad method to give the hot-water pipes not a 
flue a washing or coating over with the flowers of sulphur mixed 
with water, or milk, which makes it adhere better, the gentle 
sulphurous fumes thereby arising being destructive to the mildew. 
Another remedial measure is to throw sulphur on lumps of fresh 
slaked lime, which will have a like result. The most effectual and 
simplest remedy of all, however, is to dust flowers of sulphur all 
over the Vines. This will, in the course of a few days, destroy it, 
when the sulphur should be immediately washed off by a forcible 
syringing with clear rain-water, otherwise the Grapes, being covered 
with sulphur, would be unfit for use. Many varieties of sulphurators 
for the application of sulphur have been introduced, one of the 
simplest being Wood's Sulphurator. 

Various liquid compositions, which are applied with a syringe, have 
also been introduced, and are effectual in its destruction such as the 
Gishurst Compound, and others but as these frequently contain a 
portion of oleaginous matter, their use is not to be recommended. 

Oidium Balsamii (Montague). This mildew is different in its 
action to that of the Oidium Tucktri, and not nearly so destructive, 
so far as at present observed. It chiefly exists in the fleshy stalks of 
the bunches and berries of the Grapes, which become swollen, and so- 
thickly covered with the mildew as to detract from their value. It 
only seems to make its appearance as the Grapes are becoming ripe. 
In the Royal Horticultural Society's Garden, at Chiswick, it has 
for several years been observed to attack the Gros Colman Grapes in 
one of the houses. No effectual means has yet been discovered of 
checking its progress. According to Mr. G. W. Smith, who has 
described this mildew in the Gardeners' Chronicle, it is identical with 
the Strawberry mildew. 

American Mildew (Peronospora viticola) is another disease of a, 


similar character, which has been imported along with American 
Vines, and is now rapidly spreading over the Vineyards of 
Europe, but has not yet appeared in this country. The fungus is said 
to appear only on the under-side of the leaves, never on the upper, 
and rarely on the young stems and inflorescence. 

Diphtheritis. This disease, which seems to be either rare or of 
recent origin, for it is not described in any book we know, is a certain 
strange affection of the shoots and foliage, which in lack of an 
authorised name Mr. Blackmore, of Teddington, who has directed 
our attention to this malady, suggests may be termed Diphtheritis, or 
Lori fixation ; for the parts attacked assume ere long the consistency 
of leather, and finally that of wire almost. The first symptom is a 
contraction of the margin of the half-grown foliage, till the leaf 
becomes like a cup inverted, then the stem loses its crisp, clear sub- 
stance, goes dull, and is channelled with lines of shrinkage. The tips 
of the shoots become flat and flaccid, all the gloss is lost, and the 
vigour gone ; and the disease descends from leaf to leaf, until the 
whole tissue is hardened, and the young wood becomes of a dirty black 
tint. The growth of the season is stopped, and the main stem, instead 
of gaining in bulk, is lessened. 

Young Vines alone, so far as our present knowledge goes, are 
affected by this disorder ; but they seem to take it alike whether 
grown in pots, or planted in their places. The roots appear to be 
perfectly healthy ; the growth is robust and vigorous ; the house has 
been managed as usual, there are no cold draughts, or sudden changes, 
defects, or excesses of temperature ; but suddenly this disease 
appears, and Vine after Vine is afflicted. 

This mainly is contagious, or, at any rate, epidemic ; the symptoms 
seem to be distinct from all the recognised forms of mildew, and 
cannot be checked by the use of sulphur ; yet further investigation 
may prove that it is of fungoid origin. Some Vine-shoots suffering 
from this complaint were brought before the Scientific Committee of 
the Royal Horticultural Society about three years since, and that 
learned body attributed the mischief to red-spider. Possibly the 
disease is akin to the Pear-blight of America, there known as the 
smut, the blacks, and by other local descriptions. At any rate an 
affection very much like it, in outward show, has been observed in 
recent years among young Pear-growths against walls, especially among 
Louise Bonne, young trees of which it has quickly killed in the prime 
of their summer foliage. 

The only treatment we can recommend is to cut below the 
parts affected, remove the tainted growth from the houses, and 
stimulate the Vines, if they have strength left to form healthier 




'HE Vine is subject to, or becomes preyed on by, a great variety 
\ of insects, which, by their persistent attacks, destroy the 
vitality of the plant, if left unmolested. It is, therefore, of 
great importance that the Vine cultivator should become 
thoroughly acquainted with these pests their general appearance and 
mode of life, the causes which may lead to their presence or 
encouragement ; also the best and surest methods of preventing or 
guarding against their attacks, and how to destroy them when, 
unfortunately, they may appear. We shall now proceed to notice and 
briefly describe the most injurious of them. 

The Red-Spider (Tetranyclius telarius), fig. 41. The annexed figure 
is a greatly-magnified sketch of this insect, which is, perhaps, the 
most troublesome of all, because of its being 
so general. There is seldom a crop of Grapes 
produced without some damage or other 
being committed by this little pest. It is so 
small that it is scarcely visible without the 
aid of a magnifying glass, yet its whereabouts 
is too easily recognised by the experienced 
cultivator. It is of a pale red colour, and 
spins fine webs on the leaves, chiefly on the 
under-side, where thousands of the insects 
may frequently be seen congregated, giving 
the leaves quite a reddish brown hue. It is 
this brownish or reddish appearance of the 
leaves which often first betrays its presence. 
The insects feed upon the juices of the plant, 
especially those drawn from the leaves, which soon assume a sickly 
yellow hue, and are either destroyed or rendered useless. Thus, 
when the red-spider is allowed to feed upon and destroy the vitality 
of the leaves, the result is equivalent to the absence of leaves ; and 
without leaves there will be no eatable Grapes. The first appearance, 
then, of this pest should be the signal for the commencement of 
stringent measures for its eradication. 

As to the causes which tend to its introduction, the chief and most 
fertile is dryness or aridity of the atmosphere, especially if produced 
by fire-heat. Dryness at the roots will also encourage its increase, 
and frequently it may happen that want of ventilation in hot weather 
will favour its development ; that is, those parts of a Vinery which 

Fig. 41. BED-.SPIDER 



are not well ventilated will be more subject to red-spider than the 
freely-ventilated parts. It follows, therefore prevention being better 
than cure that as dryness is the chief cause of its appearance, so 
moisture and water properly supplied ought to prevent it ; and it is so. 
Hence, we may deduce the following rules : Water freely, and keep 
the atmosphere at all times thoroughly moist whilst the Vines are 
growing, especially if the temperature be high. If these points are 
attended to, little injury from red-spider need be feared in the case 
of Vines otherwise healthy. If, unfortunately, it does obtain a 
footing, water must still be the chief agent with which to compass its 
destruction ; therefore, syringe freely with clear rain-water, also apply 
sulphur to the hot-water pipes, or dust the leaves over with 
sulphur, etc.; or wash them with soapy water, with a decoction of 
quassia-chips, or with any compound of sulphur and soap. These 
remedies, applied with perseverance, will be sure to destroy it. 

The Thrips (TJirips minutissima), fig. 42. The figure shows the 
thrips much enlarged. It is a small, long, slender insect of a dark 
brown colour, sometimes pallid or almost white, which is oftentimes to 

be found feeding upon 
the Vine leaves much 
in the same manner as 
the red-spider. The 
thrips is, however, not 
so generally to be found 
on Vines as is the red- 
spider, and would rather 
appear to be introduced 
to the Vineries from 
other plants ; but its 
ravages are much more 
severe where the insects 
are permitted to establish themselves, and they spread rapidly. A 
dry atmosphere is favourable to their increase, and in like manner 
water is inimical to them ; but they can scarcely be dislodged or 
destroyed by any amount of mere syringing. It is necessary to wash 
the leaves with soap and sulphur, or to give them a good dressing 
with tobacco-powder or some insecticide, but it must be applied 
directly to them or it will be of little avail. 

The Mzaly Bug (Dactylopius adonidum), fig. 43. This is an 
insect of foreign introduction, but it is now, unfortunately, very 
common in our plant houses. It seems to be at home on most plants, 
and so the Vine does not escape it. The mealy-looking substance 
which covers the body of the insect is an excretion, and gives rise to 
the name of mealy bug. Its first appearance in a Vinery ought to be 
rigorously guarded against, and no plant with any bug on it should 
ever be taken into a Vinery, for if once introduced it is scarcely 

The natural size indicated by the cross lines. 



ossible to get rid of it. It 'increases very rapidly, and in the thick 

rough bark of the Vine it finds, at all times, a 

secure hiding place, so that in winter, be the 

Vines dressed ever so carefully, some individuals 

are almost sure to escape and spread from branch 

to leaf and fruit, and when on the latter they 

cannot be destroyed without damaging the berries. 

We have seen many crops of Grapes so destroyed. 

The course which we here recommend is to take 

the utmost care not to allow the insect to be 

introduced. To destroy it unceasing care and 

perseverance in dressing and washing the Vines 

with insecticides, such as Fir Tree Oil, or a 

dilution of methylated spirits or paraffin will be 


The Vine Scale (Pulvinaria or Coccus vitis), 

fig. 44. This insect is more common on the 

Fig. 43. MEALY BUG, 


Continent on exposed Vines than in this country. 

It is, however, frequently to be met with in our 

Vineries, and is a terrible scourge, covering the stems at times, and 

also often appearing on the leaves and even on the fruit. The Vine 

scale is found in great numbers on the Continent, especially in the 

south, being known by its large size and the cottony exudation which 

denotes its presence. 

Erineum. This is a general term applied to very peculiar tufts or 
patches of dirty white hairs that are met with on the under surface of 
young Vine leaves, and which have the appearance of being of fungoid 
growth, but which are in 
reality the results of the 
attacks of a small mite, 
Phytoptis vitis. In some 
cases this is mistaken for 
the Phylloxera. This dis- 
ease, although common in 
some Vine districts on the 
Continent, where it does 
considerable mischief, is not Fi S- u - YlNE ScALE OR Coccus (BARGED). 
often found in our Vineries, < From the Gardeners> A ^ a W 

Professor Planchon recommends, as a means of destroying it in the 
Vineyards, the introduction of a flock of sheep, after the Grapes are 
cut, to eat the Vine leaves, mites and all. In this country the only^ 
remedy is to pick off all the affected leaves and burn them. 

The Vine Louse (Phylloxera vastatrix), figs. 45 to 49. This is the 
most dreaded and dreadful of all the insects which attack the Vine, 
and has unfortunately found its way into our Vineries, in many of 
which it may possibly exist, unrecognised and unknown, if circum- 



stances have not been favourable or the lapse of time sufficient for its 
development. Unfortunately, since the appearance of the last edition 
of VINES AND VINE CULTURE, we have made personal acquaintance 
with this scourge, examples of both the leaf form (fig. 49) and the 
root form (fig. 45a) having been discovered amongst some young 
Vines in one of the houses in the Gardens. We here quote Mr. 
Andrew Murray's account of it, as given in the last edition of 
Thompson's Gardeners' Assistant. This, with Mr. Worthington Smith's 
sketches borrowed from the Gardeners' Chronicle, will be sufficient to 
put cultivators on their guard against its intrusion, and enable them to 
recognise it if, unfortunately, it should make its appearance : 

"The Phylloxeridce are intermediate between the scale insects and green-flies, 
etc they have the clubbed digitules on the tarsi, which are present in the 
Coccidce, and wanting in the Aphides, and in their younger stages are more 
allied to the Coccidce, while in their winged and more perfect state they are more 
nearly allied to the Aphides. 

Fig. 45. PHYLLOXERA VASTATRIX, root form : a, portion of Vine root 
showing swellings and galls ; b, hibernating larva ; c, d, e, forms of more 
matured larvae ; /, pupa of short-bodied form (tig. 48 a) ; g, vesicles found in 
abdomen. All the figures, except a, greatly enlarged. 

"Within the last ten years or so a sore malady has fallen upon the Vines 
both in France and America, and also on the Vines in the hot-houses in this 
country ; and although it is not yet admitted by all naturalists to be due to 
the Phylloxera vastatrix, few entertain any doubt on the subject. The French 
Gorernment has certainly entertained none, for it has offered a prize of twenty 
thousand francs for any remedy or preventative against its attacks. This has 
given rise to a flood of specifics of all kinds. The rurnber of so-called remedies 
is said to have exceeded one thousand, the examination of which alone has 
entailed on the French officials an unheard-of amount of trouble, especially as 



every remedy required to be tested on a fair and sufficient scale, and more 
than once. All this trouble and expense, however, has as yet been fruitless ; 
no remedy has been found. 

" In the earlier part of its cycle for it has a cycle, as we shall presently explain 
it appears under two distinct forms, both wingless, which differ, not mater- 
ially, but sufficiently from each other, the one having tubercles on the back, 
and the other being almost without them. The former is found exclusively 
upon the roots, the latter on the leaves ; but they have been traced going from 
oi' e to the other. They are so small that they can hardly be detected with the 
naked eye, but under a lens are seen to be of a fleshy texture, and light yellowish 
brown in colour. Under this form both larvae and females are found. 

"If we examine the root 
and try to trace the insect, 
its course of life seems to be 
this : It fixes itself, like 
the Coccidce, to the root by 
inserting its sucker or beak 
into the bark of the root, 
and when once fixed it 
remains there for the rest 
of its life. While so fixed 
she lays around her, in little 
groups, a quantity of ellipti- 
cal eggs, which are at first a 
fine sulphur-yellow colour, 
but afterwards take by 
degrees a smoky-gray or 
blackish hue, a point in 
which it corresponds rather 
with the Aphides than the 
Coccidce. After about eight 
days a larva comes out of 
the egg, which resembles, 
except in size, the mother 
that laid it, but it is of a 
greenish yellow colour. The 
larva thus hatched is at first 
restless and agile, but at the 

d e 

Fig. 46. PHYLLOXERA VASTATRIX, leaf form : 
a, section of leaf gall ; b, c, larvas newly hatched ; 
d, upper view ; e, under view; /, side view of the 
mother gall louse. All the figures, except a, 
greatly enlarged. 

end of three or four days it has chosen its place and fixes itself by its sucker and 
remains on the spot. It undergoes three moults, separated from each other by 
from three to five days. After about twenty days the female larva becomes adu]t 
and lays about thirty eggs ; the number of 
generations in a year is estimated at eight, 
which gives a posterity of from twenty- 
five millions to thirty millions during a 
season for fach individual. That is the 
course of life of the great majority of 
Phylloxera, but a few undergo five moults 
instead of three, which brings them to the 
superior state of insects endowed with 
flight. In this stage they have four wings, 
of which the anterior pair are transparent, 
but darkened as if with smoke at the end. 
The winged female lays its eggs in the 
down of the young leaves and buds, and Fig. 47. PHYLLOXERA VASTA- 
the eggs that it lays are larger and in fewer THIX, wingless female ; a, upper 
number than those of the apterous females surface ; b, under surface. Greatly 
on the roots, and they are of two sizes, of enlarged. 



which the largest are female pggs and the smaller males. But the insects which 
issue from them are remarkable in more respects than one. From the female 
eggs are produced females without wings, and equally males without wings from 
the male eggs. They are incapable of feeding, for neither has a sucker. From 
these males and females proceed a fresh laying of eggs, or rather of egg, for 
the female only lays one solitary egg, which is not yellow, but more or less of 
a sombre green, and is very difficult to perceive on the bark, where it is fixed 
by a small hook. It passes the winter thus, and in spring a wingless individual 
is hatched exactly resembling those on the roots, but with a very long sucker. 
This vernal individual is very fertile, containing from twenty to twenty-four 
ovaries or reservoirs full of eggs. Its descendants produce eggs without the 
intervention of males, some of them fixing themselves on the leaves and pro- 
ducing galls (figs. 45 and 46), the others reaching the roots and renewing the 

Fig. 48. PHYLLOXERA VASTATRIX : a, Imago of short-bodied root form, 
formerly supposed to be the male ; b, winged female, upper surface ; c, ditto, 
lower surface. Very greatly enlarged. 

subterranean race. How long the race may be propagated in this way, without 
the intervention of the sexual males and females above spoken of, is not known. 
.But as the continual renewal of the race proceeds, each brood becomes less and 
less fertile, by a reduction in the number of the egg-bearing tubes or ovarian 
reservoirs. The winged female, fertile without the intervention of a male, only 
lays a small number of eggs from four to ten. At last the progress ends by 
the sexual female having no more than a single ovarian reservoir and a single 
e^'g, which will be sterile if there is no male to fertilise ic. In this way the 
biugle egg which terminates the Phylloxerian cycle is reached. 

''The above is the account given by Professor Balbiani and Professor Maurice 
Girard of the evolution of the Phylloxera. Whether their views are well founded 
or not remains to be seen. They are the authors who have paid most attention 
to the subject, and to whose opinion much weight is attached. Their solution of 



the problem how to destroy the Phylloxera is to kill the winter egg deposited on 
the cane by smearing the cane with coal-tar or any other suitable means, since it 
is that egg that renews the generations that attack the roots. It may not be so 
easy to do so in the open air in France, but in our Vineries we ought to be able 
to do so more easily (always supposing their hypothesis to prove well founded), 
first by examining anatomically and microscopically the specimens found, and 
seeing from the number of their ovarian tubes whether the broods t young are 
far advanced in the cycle, and likely soon to be reduced to the single egg that 
renews it ; and if so, to take special precautions against it, which ought to be 
the more easy to do, as it is said always to be laid on the cane, and never on the 
bud or the leaves." 


(From the Gardeners' Chronicle.) 


Many remedial measures have been, as stated, from time to time 
suggested for the destruction of this terrible scourge, but as yet with- 
out any practical result. M. Dumas, the Secretary of the French 
Academy of Sciences, suggested and tried several chemical mixtures, 
some of which proved excellent manures, and were also injurious to the 
louse ; but, although the insect may be killed or destroyed by it, there 
is the further and greater difficulty of applying it to the Vines under 
cultivation. Water is the only vehicle by which anything can reach 
the roots of the plant ; and, so far, water where it can be applied in 
quantity and for a long time so as to suffocate the insect, has proved 
efficacious in destroying this pest. It has been noted that in nearly 
every instance the insect has only existed in warm and, probably, dry 
inside borders. In moist or outside borders, where abundance of 
water has been supplied, little or no Phylloxera has existed in this 
country. Mr. Dunn, of Dalkeith, when gardener at Powerscourt, near 
Dublin, was the first of our horticulturists to succeed in eradicating 
the pest, and he did so by " stamping it out," that is, by taking up 
all the Vines from the Vinery, removing the earth, thoroughly 
cleansing every portion, and then restocking with fresh Vines and 
fresh earth. The following method was adopted at Chiswick. The 
house being closely shut up, sulphur was burnt until every plant was 
killed by the burning fumes, then the plants were burned, and every 
bit of soil, also the drainage, carted away, and the whole of the frame- 
work of the house repainted, this proved absolutely successful, and 
has been followed by others with equal success. Bi-sulphide of 
carbon has been tried successfully, but this is found to be too expen- 
sive for general cultivation. In many of the French Vineyards 
grafting on various kinds of American Vines has been tried largely 
and with success ; the insect feeds on the roots of the American 
Vines, which being more robust, do not suffer so severely by its 
attacks as the European Vines. 

Of other Insect Pests, happily not very familiar in this country, but 
which have been known to do great damage in many Vineyards on the 
Continent, we may notice the following : 

The Vine Beetle (Lethrus cephalotes}. This somewhat resembles 
the common dung beetle. It is, according to Kollar, very common in 
the southern parts of Hungary. It issues from the earth in spring, 
when the Vine has begun to shoot, creeps upon the branches, bites off 
the leaf and flower-buds, and carries them back to the opening through 
which it left the earth. The only way to protect the Vine from this 
enemy is to catch each one individually and kill it, and this can 
easily be done, as it carries on its work by daylight. 

The Vine Weevil, fig. 50 (Cucurlio vitis), otherwise Otiorhynchus 
sulcatus, otherwise Otiorhynchus vastator-, and its smaller and less 
common congener, Otiorhynchus picipes. The former is of a dull 
black colour, hard, round-bodied, granulated, wingless, having six 




Fig. 50. THE VINE 

Curculio vitis. 

legs, a blunt proboscis, and two antennae. Its length is about three- 
eighths of an inch, and its habits are nocturnal. The larvae are of 
a dull white colour, legless, curved, and maggoty in appearance, and 
seem to have a gregarious tendency. The pupa is soft, of a dirty 
white tone, and more sensitive than pupae are in general. 

In the larva state, living wholly underground 
for a period not yet ascertained, this creature 
feeds upon the Vine roots, and gnaws them 
almost to a stump, enjoying especially the out- 
push of young fibres, and following every tender 
growth. This is the most destructive stage. 
Then, after about a fortnight passed in the 
grub state, the weevil issues from the soil, and 
for several weeks, perhaps, feeds upon the foliage 
by night, and lurks about the neighbourhood by 

To strong and well-established Vines this pest may not do much 
injury ; to newly-planted canes and those in pots it is often fatal. There 
seems to be no remedy for who can remove and burn the soil, as is 
lightly recommended, without destroying the Vine roots too *? except 
to catch the marauder in his nightly raid, and check the breed. This is 
done by laying white cloths or paper under the Vine stems, and 
throwing a bright light on them. Any weevils which do not drop, 
as some will do at the surprise, may generally be brought down by a 
sharp shake of the trellis. By frequent care of this throughout the 
spring and early summer, the plague may be stayed, though nothing 
will entirely quell it, when once set up. Above all permit no pot 
plants, such as Eerns, Spiraeas, etc., of tufty and thickety nature to 
stand near the Vines in spring-time. In these the weevils harbour, 
and pursue their evil courses ; then the female descends the pot, and 
the Vine roots support her issue. 

Mr. R. D. Blackmore, of 
Teddington, who has kindly 
furnished the foregoing de- 
scription, has had his Vines 
greatly injured by this pest. 
The Vine Tortrix or Moth 
(Tortrixvitisana),fig. 51. 
This, according to Kollar, 
is a moth from the cater- 
pillar of which the Vines 
in the neighbourhood of 
Vienna have suffered much, 
and it is occasionally met Fig gl> TORTRIX VITISANA . 

With in this country. 1X>1S- The crossed lines indicate the natural size, 

duval, when speaking of (From the Gardeners' Chronicle.) 


the ravages of this insect, exclaims, "Dieu merci, il n'a pas encore fait 
son apparition en France." The female, early in spring, lays her eggs 
singly on the twigs or buds of the Vine, from which the young are 
hatched at the time when the blossom-buds are unfolded. These 
caterpillars fasten several blossom buds together, and eat off the inner 
parts of the flowers. When one part is finished they go on to another, 
and so destroy a great quantity. Instances have occurred in which 
though plenty of blossom has appeared, the whole crop has been 
devoured by these caterpillars. 

Fig. 52. 

TORTRIX ANGTJSTIORANA. The crossed lines indicate the natural size. 
(From the Gardeners' Chronicle.) 

Another Vine moth Tortrix angustiorana,fig. 52, has recently been 
figured and described by Mr. Westwood in the Gardeners' Chronicle, 
N.S. xviii., 524. This moth seems to have existed in America for some 
few years, but it is only lately that its appearance has been noticed 
in this country. The caterpillars are found gnawing the skin of ripe 
Grapes, eating a little of the pulp, and fastening them together by a 
web, thus destroying much fruit. They are about one inch in length, 
of a dirty greenish grey colour, with a dark line down the middle of 
the back. The head is pale buff, very glossy and nearly square ; the 



eyes black. We have captured several of the caterpillars of this 
moth in the great vinery at Chiswick, where they were found preying 
on the ripe fruit. They appear to feed on one berry, which decays 




and rots the adjoining ones, so that four or five berries are often 
found to be destroyed consequently, they prove to be very destruc- 
tive. They may easily be found, and when disturbed, like all these 


insects, they drop suddenly from their quarters suspended by a 
small web. Other species of Tortrix, or Vine moths, have been 
observed, which bear a great resemblance to those noticed in their 
manner of life. 

(Ecanthus pellucens. This is a sort of cricket, pretty common- in 
the vineyards of Hungary, which has been brought under our notice 
by Herr Horvath, of Funfkirchen, Hungary, a very zealous amateur 
cultivator of Grapes. It is entirely unknown in this country, and it 
was only in 1883 that the exact habits of the insect were discovered 
by Dr. G. Horvath, of Buda-Pesth. The illustration, fig. 53, we copy 
from the Hungarian Entomological Journal, The Rovartani Lapok, 
1884, where it is fully described by Dr. Horvath. The insect lays 
its eggs in the pith of the young shoots of the young growing Vine. 
Their presence may be easily detected on the exterior by the small 
round holes made in the (1) shoot; and on splitting the shoots care- 
fully, the eggs (2) are plainly visible. Herr Horvath states that this 
insect is much beloved by the peasantry on account of its song, or 
chirp, which it utters at twilight, from the beginning of July until 
late in the autumn. Their fondness for it arises, not only from its 
pleasant sounding chirp, but also from the fact that it begins when 
the Grapes are just beginning to colour, and so heralds the vintage. 




TT would be practically impossible in any one establishment to 
IT cultivate all the varieties of Grapes which are known, or even all 
y those which are known to possess some special merit. We have, 
therefore, thought it desirable to indicate in a condensed and 
collected form a selection of the varieties best adapted for particular 

" Many for many virtues excellent, 
None but for some, and yet all different." 

1. Black Hamburgh 

2. Royal Muscadine 

3. Foster's Seedling 


4. Madresfield Court 

5. Royal Ascot 

6. Black Alicante. 

For this purpose no Grape equals No. 1 (the Black Hamburgh), which is 
grown to a hundred times the extent of any other, and is the beau ideal of a Pot 
Grape ; No. 2 is much esteemed for earliness and certainty of cropping ; Nos. 4 
and 6 produce handsome bunches ; No. 5 is very free-fruiting. 

All the early Sweetwaters are also particularly well suited for cultivating in 
pots. The Muscat of Alexandria and some others of the high-class Grapes 
are, on the contrary, very unsatisfactory. 


1. Royal Muscadine 

2. Chasselas Vibert 

3. Ascot Citronnelle 

4. Black Hamburgh 

5. Miller's Burgundy 

6. Espiran. 

No. 1, the Royal Muscadine, very generally grown as the Sweetwater, and in 
France as the Chasselas de Fontainebleau, is the best open-air Grape, ripening 
freely in warm situations in the south of England ; No. 2 is earlier than No. 1, 
and larger in berry, a variety greatly to be desired ; No. 3 is early and of fine 
quality ; No 4 in fine seasons ripens pretty well ; Nos. 5 and 6 ripen freely in 
fine seasons. The old Dutch Sweetwater is sometimes excellent, but frequently 
sets badly. Black July and Miller's Burgundy may also be recommended. 


1. Black Hamburgh I 3. Madresfield Court 

2. Royal Muscadine | 4. Foster's Seedling. 

These will ripen freely in an ordinary greenhouse without requiring any 
fire-heat or special attention. 



1. Black Hamburgh 

2. Madresfield Court 

3. Foster's Seedling 

4. Royal Muscadine 

5. Alicante 

6. Muscat of Alexandria. 

These are all of excellent constitution, free-bearing, good in quality and of 
-fine appearance ; No. 6 (the Muscat of Alexandria) requiring special treatment 
in respect to more heat, etc. 


1. Black Hamburgh 

2. Gros Colman 

3. Muscat of Alexandria 

5. Alicante 

6. Lady Downe's Seedling 

7. Madresfield Court 

4. Canon Hall Muscat | 8. Buckland Sweetwater. 

Appearance, size, and free-fruiting qualities are the chief requirements for 
market Grapes. No. 1 may be noted as the leading market Grape ; No. 2, from 
its great size, handsome appearance, and good keeping properties, is now the 
chief and most profitable late Grape grown ; No . 3, when well grown, is always 
in demand ; No. 4 is one of the most profitable when well cultivated ; Nos. 
5 and 6 are free -fruiting and keep well ; No. 7 is valuable as an early variety 
of fine quality, also No. 8 from its size and fine appearance. Foster's 
Seedling and Duke of Buccleuch are sometimes seen in small quantities. 
Very few other sorts are ever seen in market. 

The best six Black varieties for exhibition purposes : 

1. Black Hamburgh 

2. Alicante 

3. Madresfield Court 

4. Gros Guillaume 

5. Gros Colman 

6. Alnwick Seedling. 

The best four White varieties for exhibition purposes : 

1. Muscat of Alexandria I 3. Buckland Sweetwater 

2. Trebbiano | 4. Foster's Seedling. 

The most imposing of the Black Grapes is, no doubt, the Alicante, and among 
the White varieties the Muscat of Alexandria. 



1. Gros Colman 

2. Lady Downe's Seedling 

3. Mrs. Pince 

5. Alnwick Seedling 

6. Gros Guillaume 

7. West's St. Peter's. 

4. Alicante 

No. 1 occupies the premier position for keeping properties ; No. 2 is nearly 
equal ; No. 3 holds its flavour well, but often loses colour and shrivels rather 
than rots ; No. 4 is very popular for its fine appearance ; No. 7 retains the 
greatest freshness, but when kept late becomes of inferior quality. 


1. Muscat of Alexandria 

2. White Tokay 

3. Trebbiano 

4. Raisin de Calabre. 

Late White Grapes are not nearly so much in repute as the Black sorts ; 
they are so easily bruised and disfigured that they are difficult to send to market 
in good condition. 




1 . Black Hamburgh 

2. Madresfield Court 

3. Duke of Buccleuch 

Royal Muscadine 
Foster's Seedling 
Ascot Citronelle. 

No Grape forces more easily, or is more generally useful than No. 1, which can 
always be relied upon ; No. 2 is now recognised as a good early variety ; No. 3 
is large and handsome, and ripens before the Black Hamburgh ; Nos. 4, 5, and 
6 are all excellent as early sorts. 


Muscat of Alexandria 
Chasselas Musque 
Grizzly Frontignan 
Duchess of Buccleuch 

5. Ferdinand de Lesseps 

6. Muscat Champion 

7. Duke of Buccleuch. 

Amongst these No. 1 is decidedly first, being the best and handsomest of all 
Grapes ; No. 2 is very luscious, but its habit of cracking spoils it ; No. 3 is rich 
but not attractive ; No. 4 is exceedingly rich ; No. 5 has a peculiarly pleasant 
richness ; No. 6 is large and luscious ; No. 7 is very large and most^refreshing 
in quality. 

Fig. 54. 



Grown by Mr. ROBERTS. 

(From the Gardener.S Chronide.) 



1. Trebbiano : The largest bunch 011 record is that which was grown by Mr. 

Curror, at Eskbank, on a Vine of this variety, weighing twenty-six 
pounds four ounces (fig. 54). 

2. White Nice : Bunches reputedly of this sort have been grown at Arkleton 

weighing twenty-five pounds fifteen ounces, and nineteen pounds five 
ounces ; and from Castle Kennedy weighing seventeen pounds two ounces. 

3. Gros Guillaume : the late Mr. Roberts, Charleville Forest, Ireland, grew the 

largest bunches of this variety, one of which weighed twenty-three pounds 
five ounces. See fig. 55. 

4. Syrian .- Speechly's famous bunch of this variety, grown at Welbeck, 

weighed nineteen pounds. 

5. Black Hamburgh : Mr. Hunter, of Lambton, exhibited one bunch of this, 

weighing twenty-one pounds twelve ounces, and another weighing thirteen 
pounds two ounces, these being the largest on record of this variety, 


1 . Gros Colman : berries four inches j 3. Duke of Bucclench 

in circumference are recorded 4. Waltham Cross 

2. Canon Hall Muscat : berries three- 5. Mill Hill Hamburgh 

and -a -half to four inches in 6. Dutch Hamburgh 
circumference 7., Muscat Champion. 


1. Black Corinth : produces the Cur- 4 Ferdinand de Lesseps : peculiarly 

rants of commerce delicate flavour, highly per- 

2. Black Monukka: seedless, with : fumed 

crackling flesh of singular but | 5. Ciotat : leaves very much lacin- 
agreeable flavour iated. hence called the Parsley 

3. Strawberry : ripe fruit perfumed Vine 

and scenting the air as with ripe 6. Aleppo : fruit striped or parti- 
Strawberries or Raspberries coloured. 

Several varieties of Grapes are remarkable for the handsome colour assumed by 
their foliage in the autumn months. 




'HE varieties of Grapes are so numerous a large proportion of 
I them nearly, if not quite, unknown, and so unsuitable also for 
cultivation in this country, being mainly used for wine making 
that it is not desirable, even were it possible, to attempt here 
a complete enumeration of them. We shall, therefore, confine our- 
selves to noticing such of the different varieties that are or have been 
grown in this country, and are distinct, or possess some special merit. 
In a broad sense, the cultivated varieties of the Grape Vine are 
divisable into two great families or classes, which are very distinct, 
not only in constitution, but also in foliage and fruit. These are : 

I. The EUROPEAN GRAPES, including all cultivated Grapes of the 
Old World, and consisting of varieties of Vitis vinifera. 

II. The AMERICAN GRAPES, including those belonging to America 
or the New World, consisting of varieties of Vitis Ldbrusca. 

There has been no very definite classification of Grapes yet adopted, 
although the desirability of employing some simple and popular 
method of grouping the different varieties, whereby those who have 
only a limited knowledge of the subject may comprehend something of 
the nature and character of the variety named, is self evident, and the 
want of it has been long felt. It will be at once admitted that the 
terms Muscat and Sweetwater are pretty well understood, as conveying 
a knowledge of the flavour and general character of the respective 
varieties to which they are attached ; and it is by an extension of this 
idea that we propose to arrange them into three great classes or 
sections, characterised by the flavour of the fruit 

1. Sweetwater Grapes. 

2. Muscat Grapes. 

3. Vinous Grapes. 

These principal sections may be subdivided, firstly by the colour 
of the fruit, which may be 

Black or Purple, 

White, Green or Yellow, 

Red or Tawny ; 
and secondly, by the shape of the fruit, which is - 


Round ; 
thus making in all, when complete, eighteen well marked sub-divisions. 



By this plan, one would be enabled to speak of the Chasselas Musque\ 
for example, as a Round White Muscat Grape ; of the Black 
Hamburgh, as an Oval Black Sweetwater Grape ; and of the Gros 
Colman, as a Round Black Vinous Grape, etc. 

CLASS 1. EUROPEAN GRAPES (Vitis vim/era). 

Varieties with a sweet sugary or saccharine flavour, the juice thin, 
but pleasant, varying in sweetness ; skin generally thin and tender. 
These are mostly early varieties, and ripen freely. Those termed Mus- 
cadines are here included, as well as the greater portion of what the 
French term Chasselas. 

Berries Black or Purple. 

t OVAL. 

1. Black Hamburgh or Frankenthal 

2. Black Monukka 

3. Black Prince 

4. (Eillade Noire 

5. Trentham Black. 


tf ROUND. 
Black July 
Black Muscadine 
Black Corinth 
Miller's Burgundy 
Mill HiU Hamburgh 

Berries White, Green, or Yellow. 

f OVAL. 

11. Bicane 

12. Cabral 

13. Chaouch 

14. Diamant Traube 

15. Foster's Seedling 

16. Grove End Sweetwater 

17. Golden Champion 

18. Lady Hutt 

19. Madeleine Royale 

ft ROUND. 

20. Buckland Sweetwater 

tt ROUND continued. 

21. Chasselas de Florence 

22. Chaptal 

23. Chasselas Vibert 

24. Ciotat 

25. Duke of Buccleuch 

26. Dutch Sweetwater 

27. Golden Hamburgh 

28. Prolific Sweetwater. 

29. Royal Muscadine 

30. White Frankenthal 

*** Berries Red, Tawny or Variegated. 

t OVAL. ft ROUND continual. 

81. Ahbee. ; 33. Chasselas Rose 

tt ROUND. 
32. Aleppo 


Chasselas Violet 
Gromier du Cantal 




Varieties with a musky or perfumed flavour, and generally with 
firm flesh. The larger varieties, as a rule, require a warmer tempe- 
rature to ripen in than the Sweetwaters. The Frontignans are 
included amongst the Muscats. 

* Berries Black or Purple. 
t OVAL. | ft HOUND continued, 

42. August Frontignan 

43. Black Frontignan 

44. July Frontignan 

45. Muscat de Lierval 

46. Meurthe Frontignan 

47. Sarbelle Frontignan. 

White, Green or Yellow. 

ft ROUND. 

56. Ascot Frontignan 

57. Auvergne Frontignan 

58. Chasselas Musque 

59. Dr. Hogg 

60. Duchess of Buccleuch 

61. Mrs. Pearson 

62. Ottonel 

63. Troveren Frontignan 

64. White Frontignan. 

*** Berries Red or Tawny. 
t ROUND. I 66. Madeira Frontignan. 

65. Grizzly Frontignan. I 67. Muscat Champion. 


In gram's Hardy Prolific 


Madresfield Court 


Muscat Hamburgh 


Mrs. Pi nee 

ft ROUND. 


Angers Frontignan. 

** Berries 

t OVAL. 


Ascot Citronelle 


Canon Hall Muscat 


Ferdinand de Lesseps 


Golden Queen 


Muscat of Alexandria 


Muscat of Hungary 


Muscat Bifere 


St. Laurent 


Varieties with a strong vinous somewhat harsh semi-saccharine 
flavour, and a thick skin, mostly requiring a considerable amount of 
heat and time to ripen, are generally termed late Grapes. 

* Berries Black or Purple. 


t OVAL. 

Alnwick Seedling 
Appley Towers 
Black Morocco 
Gros Maroc 
Morocco Prince 
Royal Ascot 
West's St. Peter's. 

ft ROUND. 

76. Aramon 

77. Dutch Hamburgh 

78. Espiran 

79. Gros Colman 

80. Gros Guillaume 

81. Lady Downe's Seedling. 






** Berries White or Yellow. 

t OVAL. 

Royal Vineyard 
Waltham Cross 
White Lisbon 
White Tokay. 


ft ROUND. 
Raisin de Calabre 
White Gros Colman 
White Lady Downe's Seedling 
White Nice. 

CLASS 2. AMERICAN GRAPES (Vitis Lalruscaj. 

These are generally slightly perfumed, and are in favour more or 
less " foxy," with a peculiar gelatinous flesh. 



Moore's Early 

* Berries Black or Purple. 

| 94. Strawberry. 


** Berries White or Golden. 


Golden Pocklington 



Lady Washington. 

*** Berries Red or Grizzly. 
99. Jefferson | 100. Virginias. 

This synopsis of select varieties includes all the Grapes at present 
known which, on some ground or other, we think deserving of atten- 
tion, though for general utility, as shown in Chapter XXV., the 
number of sorts may be reduced within much narrower limits. 




HE varieties of European Grapes included in the synoptical list 
given in the foregoing chapter have now to be described ; and 
in order to do this we have thought it best to arrange them in 
alphabetical order for facility of reference, and have added such 

particulars of the history of the several kinds, and such cultural notes 

as may be likely to prove useful and interesting. 

ABEBCAIRNEY. West's St. Peter's. 

AHBEE (31*). An oval tawny or grizzly Sweet water Grape. 
Season : late ; improved by hanging after being ripe. Merits : quite 
third-rate in quality, but exceedingly handsome in appearance ; 
but scarcely worthy of cultivation. 

VINE. Growth very strong and robust, producing large thick wood, which 
does not always ripen freely ; moderately fruitful. Leaves large, thick, deep 
green, and broadly serrated. Leaf-stalks reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, averaging from ten inches to twelve inches in length 
when well grown, and weighing from one pound to three pounds, of regular 
tapering form, with large shoulders. Foot-stalks thick and strong. Berries large, 
roundish oval, always well set. Skin thin ; at first of a dull greenish colour, 
changing when fully and properly ripened to a bright rosy pink on the side next 
to the sun. Flesh somewhat soft and squashy, and without flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. The Grape as its name, Ahbee, which means "watery," 
indicates is a native of India. It was sent to the Horticultural Society in 1836 
by Colonel Sykes, from the Deccan (India). It formed one of the first collection 
of Grapes planted in the great conservatory at Chiswick, where its merits were 
fully tested in 1861-62. Its very handsome appearance gained for it considerable 
popularity ; one facetious writer describing it as peculiarly suitable for wedding 
breakfasts, alluding to the beautiful blush colour of the berries. 

CULTURAL NOTES. There is no record of its successful cultivation elsewhere 
than that at Chiswick, already referred to. The plant there, which fruited so 
well, was grown in a very shallow inside border, where the roots were much 
confined ; other plants in good soil proved unsatisfactory. It sets freely, but 
requires a considerable amount of heat to ripen it thoroughly. 

ALEPPO (32) A round variegated Sweetwater Grape. Season: 
early ; fit only for immediate use. Merits: quality third-rate ; worthy 
cf cultivation for its singular appearance. 

SYN. Chasselas Panache. 

VINE. Growth somewhat blender, producing small wood, which generally 
ripens freely, and is provided with large prominent buds ; fruitful. Leaves 
medium sized, roundish, deeply serrated, with a reddish tinge, sometimes striped 
red and yellow in a singular manner. 

*The numbers refer to the Synoptical List at page 124. 



FRUIT. Bunches small or medium sized, somewhat loose and straggling, with 
slender stalks. Berries below medium size, round, variously coloured, some 
being green, others black, or striped with black and red ; frequently a bunch 
may be all of one colour, or one-half black and the other green. Flesh soft, of a 
sweet and pleasant flavour, but having no particular character. 

(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 


HISTORY, ETC. This appears to be a very old variety, and is known through- 
out France and Germany. Most probably it is the result of a sport. It has 
been frequently submitted to the Fruit Committee as a new variety. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Has the reputation of requiring heat, but we believe it 
will succeed in any ordinary Vinery. 

ALICANTE (68) Plate I. An oval black Vinous Grape. Season : 
best suited for late use ; where Grapes are required after Christmas, 
there are few sorts that keep so well as the Alicante. It is largely 
cultivated for market. Merits : quality third-rate, but valuable for 
its excellent keeping and free-fruiting properties, its splendid 
appearance and fine constitution. 

SYN. Black Alicante, Black Lisbon, Black Portugal, Black St. 
Peter's, Black Spanish, Black Tokay, Meredith's Alicante, etc. 

VINE. Growth very strong, vigorous and free ; the young growing shoots 
densely coated with down, giving them a whitish appearance, the ripened shoots 
being also downy, and especially so round the buds, which are large and promi- 
nent, and of a dark purplish colour ; the wood ripens freely and well ; moderately 
fruitful. Leaves very large, deep green, thick and soft, covered with down on 
the under side, giving them a silvery appearance ; they remain long conspicu- 
ously green amongst others, being late in ripening and changing colour, and die 
off yellow, or occasionally tinged with red. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, or very large, averaging from two pounds to six 

Cnds in weight, broadly shouldered, sometimes regularly tapering and of very 
dsome form, but more frequently divided, or with large irregular shoulders 
that assume the appearance of a cluster of bunches ; always very closely and 
well-set, and requiring very early attention in regard to thinning. Stalk stout, 
strong, and very short, the bunch frequently resting on the shoot. Berries 
large, of a true oval shape, quite black, and covered with a dense blue bloom. 
Foot-stalks thick, short, and slightly warted. Skin thick and leathery. Flesh 
rather squashy, with a tinge of red, and adhering to the skin. Flavour, in 
general, somewhat earthy and disagreeable, but when well ripened, and after 
hanging a long time, they are more briskly and pleasantly flavoured, although 
seldom rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. There is no authoritative record of the introduction of this 
Grape. The name is Spanish, but it is applied to several varieties of Grapes 
coming from Spain. Dr. Hogg ( Manual) states that he has met with it 
in the Vineyards of the south of France, under the name of Espagnin Noir. Tt 
is no doubt the same as Speechley's Alicante, but it is to Mr. Meredith, late of 
Garston Vineyard, that the credit for the popularity of this Grape is due. His 
excellent and extensive cultivation of it led to its being called Merediths Alicante, 
in order to distinguish it from Kempsey Alicante, at that time much praised and 
recommended, but which ultimately proved to be Black Morocco. 

CULTURAL NOTES. There are very few better constitutioned, or more easily 
cultivated Grapes. It will grow and succeed in any ordinary Vinery, but the 
more heat that is given to ripen the fruit, the better the flavour. With ordinary 
care, it is generally very fruitful, always sets well, and colours magnificently. 
After ripening it requires to be kept in a cool temperature, otherwise the berries 
are apt to rot and decay. 

ALNWICK SEEDLING (69) Plate II. An oval black Vinous Grape. 
Season : late. Merits : quality second-rate, but valuable as a late 
variety; it is one of the best keeping Grapes in cultivation, and 
extremely handsome. 



SYN. Olive House Seedling, John Downie. 

VINE. Growth very strong, robust, and vigorous, producing long-jointed wood, 
remarkably free constitution ; very fruitful, the young growing shoots nearly 

(Bunch \ ; berries natural size.) 

smooth, reddish in colour ; the ripened wood firm, with reddish brown bark, and 
large prominent buds. Leaves very large, bright green, rugose, deeply serrated, 
and dying oft' yellow. 



FRUIT. Bunches large, with one very large shoulder, giving them the appe* r- 
ance of dual bunches, bluntly conical, stamens deflexed, shy-setting. Stalk very 
long and strong. Berries large, roundish ovate, on strong foot-stalks, and marked 
with a very distinct line or suture across the apex of each fruit. Skin thick and 


(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 

tough, of a deep purplish black colour, covered with a thick blue bloom. Flesh 
firm, tinged with red ; seeds large. Flavour strong and sparkling, becoming 
rich and sweet when well ripened ; in this respect very much resembling the 
Black Morocco. 


HISTORY, ETC. This is a comparatively new Grape, baring been first brought 
under notice by Mr. Bell, of Clive House, Alnwick, who submitted examples of 
it to the Fruit Committee in 1876, under the name of Clive House Seedling. 
Subsequently, it was proved to have been raised at Alnwick Castle, and hence 
the name Alnwick Seedling was adopted. It is stated to be a hybrid between 
Black Morocco and some other black variety. 

CULTURAL NOTES. The remarkably free habit and fine constitution of this 
Grape renders the plant extremely easy of cultivation. The berries require to be 
carefully set with the pollen of some other variety. It ripens freely and 
colours thoroughly under ordinary treatment, and keeps well, the skin shrivelling 
before decaying. 

AMBER MUSCADINE. Royal Muscadine. 

ANGERS FRONTIGNAN^!). A round black Muscat Grape. Season: 
early. Merits: first-class as to flavour ; an improvement on the Black 
Frontignan, which it resembles. 

SYN. Muscat Noir d'Angers, Muscat Noir des Pyrenees, Muscat 
Noir Tardif, Muscat Noir d'Eisenstadt, Caillaba. 

VINE. Growth free, moderately robust, producing short-jointed wood, with 
large prominent buds ; very fruitful. Leaves roundish, of medium size, dying 
off with a slight reddish tinge. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium sized and very compact, with small shoulders ; the 
berries very closely and well set. Berries small and roundish. Skin purplish 
black, with a thick bloom. Flesh firm, yet tender and juicy, very sweet and 
rich, with a strong Muscat or Frontignan flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised at Angers by M. Vibert. It has been grown at 
Chiswick for some years, but is not in very general cultivation. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds very well in an ordinary Vinery ; requiring the 
same treatment as the Black Hamburgh, and in good seasons ripens very fairiy 
on the open wall. Excellent for pot-culture. 

ANSLEY'S LARGE OVAL. Black Morocco. 

APPLEY TOWERS (70) Plate III. An oval black Vinous Grape. 
Season : late. Merits : first-class quality, of good size and constitution. 

VINE. Growth moderately robust, shoots ripening freely. Leaves large, 
strong, and leathery, dying off reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches of medium size, tapering and slightly shouldered, sets freely. 
Berries large ovate, on strong stalks. Skin tough, thick, very dark, with a fine 
bloom. Flesh firm, juicy, rich, with a strong rich flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised by Mr. Myles, gardener to Lady Hutt, Appley Towers, 
Ryde, from Gros Colman crossed by Alicante. Received First Class Certifi- 
cate, Royal Horticultural Society, in 1889. 

ARAMON (76) Plate IV. A round black Vinous Grape. Season 
late. Merits : second-rate, frequently only third-rate. 

SYN. Bur char dt's Prince , Plantriche, etc. 

VINE. Growth remarkably rampant and vigorous, producing, wherever stop- 
ped, a great mass of young shoots, which are remarkably brittle ; it requires more 
trimming and stopping than any other Vine, and the spurs soon become very 
large and coarse ; very fruitful. Leaves medium-sized, roundish, dying off 



FRUIT. Bunches large, of a long cylindrical shape, with a very long stalk, 
which is remarkably brittle, and may be broken with the slightest touch ; very 
regularly but not closely set. Berries medium-sized, roundish. Foot-stalks 
thick. Skin of a dull purplish black colour, with a thin bloom. Flesh tender, 
juicy, with a very brisk, rich or strong vinous flavour when well ripened. 

Plate IV. ARAMON. 

(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

HISTORY, ETC. This Grape, Dr. Hogg informs us, is largely cultivated in 
Languedoc and Provence, in the South of France, and is much esteemed as a wine 
Grape. The remarkable brittleness of the stalk of the bunch is some recommen- 
dation to it, as no knife being required, the crop is secured in much less time. 


It has been grown in the conservatory at Chiswick for many years, having been 
received, under number, from Herr Burchardt, of Lansberg on the Warta, and 
was named Burchardfs Prince by the Fruit Committee, on account of its resem- 
blance to Black Prince, and largely distributed under that name, but it never 
appears to have become popular, though there are many much inferior varieties 

CULTURAL NOTES. A remarkably free-fruiting Grape wherever grown, requir- 
ing a considerable amount of heat to ripen the fruit thoroughly. 

ARCHERFIELD EARLY MUSCAT. Muscat of Alexandria. 

ASCOT CITRONNELLE (48). An oval white Muscat Grape. Season: 
first early ; ripens three weeks before the Black Hamburgh. Merits : 
excellent in quality ; worthy of being grown on account of its 
earliness, but too small for extended cultivation. 

. Growth free and vigorous, but not robust, the shoots slender, always 
ripens well ; free-fruiting. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, bluntly cylindrical in shape, very closely set. Berries 
small, roundish oval in shape. Foot-stalks stout. Skin thin, white or pale 
straw-coloured, very clear and transparent. Flesh tender, juicy, very richly 
flavoured, with a strong Muscat aroma. 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised by the late Mr. John Standish, of Ascot, being a cross 
between Chasselas Musque and the old Citronelle ; sent out in 1871, 

CULTURAL NOTES. Suitable for pots or cold orchard-houses, or in good 
seasons for the open wall. 

ASCOT FRONTIGNAN (56). A round white Muscat Grape. Season : 
first early. Merits : first-class in quality. 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous ; free-bearing and ripens readily. Leaves 
deeply lobed, with reddish veins and leaf-stalks. 

FRUIT. Bunches of medium size, strongly and somewhat broadly shouldered, 
rather thin, and not requiring much thinning. Berries round and small. Skin 
thin, pale greenish white. Flesh firm, very sweet, and with a rich Muscat 

HISTORY, ETC. A cross between Muscat de Saumur and Chasselas Musque, 
raised by the late Mr. J. Standish, of Ascot. 

CULTURAL NOTES. A Vine of this variety is growing in Mr. G. F. Wilson's 
orchard-house at Weybridge, trained along under the ridge, where it ripens its 
fruit freely, without any artificial heat. 

AUGUST FRONTIGNAN (42). A round black Muscat Grape. Season : 

first early, quite three weeks in advance of Black Hamburgh. Merits : 

valuable for its earliness and hardiness, but too small to merit 
extended cultivation. 

SYN. Muscat d'Aout. 

VINE. Growth very slender, but free ; very fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches small and compact. Berries small, round, occasionally 
inclining to ovate. Skin thin, of a dark purplish colour. Flesh very juicy and 
sweet, with a slight trace of Muscat. 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised by M. Vibert, of Angers. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Generally grown as a pot Grape, for which purpose it is 
very suitable ; it ripens also on the open wall. 



AUVERGNE FRONTIGNAN (57). A round white Muscat Grape. 
Season : first early. Merits : first-class in flavour, and suitable for 
cultivation as an early, high-flavoured Grape. 

SYN. Early Auvcrgne Frontignan, Muscat Eugenien, Muscat du 
Puy de Dome. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, and always ripens well ; very fruitful. 
~ FRUIT. Bunches medium sized, rather long and cylindrical in shape, and 
closely set. Berries small and round. Skin clear white, a great portion of the 
berries becoming of a deep amber when fully ripe, and when so, extremely rich 
and pleasant, with a strong Muscat aroma ; the flesh crisp and juicy. 


(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

HISTORY, ETC. This is one of the many introductions of the late Mr. Rivers, 
and was much esteemed by him. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds well for pot-culture, and in orchard-houses, or 
on open walls. 

BICAISIE (11). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. Season: early. 
Merits : a first-class early white Grape, well worthy of cultivation. 

SYN. Vicane, Panse jaune. 



VINE. Growth moderately strong, the wood short-jointed, light coloured, 
with rather prominent buds, ripening freely ; moderately fruitful. \Leaves 
medium sized, covered on the under surface with a light, thick down. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium sized, compact or rather short, with broaa shoulders, 
shy-setting, stamens deflexed. Foot-stalk short and stout. Berries medium 
sized, roundish oval. Skin thin and tender, white, almost transparent with a 
thin bloom. Flesh tender, very juicy, with a sweet pleasant flavour. 

(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

HISTORY, ETC. Received at Chiswick from the late M. A. Papeleu, nursery, 
man, Wetteren, Ghent. It fruited iu 1861-62, and was very favourably reported 
on by Dr. Hogg at the time ; it has, however, somehow been lost, and awaits 
re-introduction. The Panse jaune is a large, coarse Grape, and is frequently 
called Bicane on the Continent. 


CULTURAL NOTES. It will succeed admirably in any house suitable for Black 


BLACK CHAMPION. Mill Hill Hamburgh. 

BLACK CHASSELAS. Black Muscadine. 

BLACK CORINTH (8) Plate V. A round black Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : second-rate ; an extremely interesting sort. 

SYN. Gorinthe noir, Currant Grape, Patras Currant, Zante, 
Raisin de Corance of the Romans. 

VINE. Growth moderately robust and vigorous ; matures well, and is very 

FRUIT. Bunches from four to six or eight inches long, tapering, with long 
loose shoulders. Stalks slender. Berries very small, about the size of small peas, 
round. Skin purplish red. Flesh juicy, sweet and pleasant, and without seeds. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is the Grape producing the Currants of commerce 
"currant" being here a corruption of "Corinth" from the berries resembling 
those of our Currants in size, etc. This Grape is very extensively cultivated in 
the Morea, Greece, and the Ionian Islands ; but more especially in the districts 
of Zante, Corinth, and near the town of Patras, from whence as much as 75,000 
tons of dried fruit have been exported in one season. The Vines are grown as 
low bushes, the crop ripening in succession from the first shoots, and the laterals, 
which also bear. The fruit, after being gathered, was formerly spread out on a 
specially smoothed plot of ground to dry, in which process the berries dropped 
from the stalks which sufficiently accounts for the small stones and grit 
formerly so often found amongst Currants, and for the necessity of washing them. 
Now, as we learned from the late Mr. Maw, of Broseley, the better cultivators 
use flat wooden trays for drying the fruit, so that it is kept quite clean. Currants 
have long been used in this country, Sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, having a monopoly of their importation. The Corinth Grape, although 
generally seedless, sometimes produces full-sized large berries with seeds- 
reverting to the " Grape," as it were. Cultivation seems to tend to this, as in 
many districts notably at Leghorn its cultivation had to be abandoned, on 
account of that tendency. It is figured in The Transactions of the Horticultural 
Society, i, 246, 1832. 

CULTURAL NOTES. This Grape is only grown as a curiosity in this country ; 
it will succeed in a Black Hamburgh-house, grown in a large pot or box. At 
Chiswick it has fruited frequently. 

BLACK FRONTIGNAN (43) Plate VI. A round black Muscat Grape. 
Season: early. Merits: in flavour, first-class. 

SYN. Muscat noir ordinaire, Muscat noir. 

VINE. Growth moderately strong and vigorous, very free, always ripening 
freely ; very fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches compact, long and cylindrical in shape, frequently with one 
large shoulder, and closely set. Berries below medium size, round. Skin thin, 
of a dull bluish black colour, with a thick bloom. Flesh firm (might be termed 
thick), of a reddish tinge, with a strong, rich, Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Introduced into this country by Sir William Temple, in 1654, 
and one of the very oldest Grapes in cultivation. The name, Frontignan, is taken 
from a town in France, celebrated for its excellent wine generally called Fron- 



CULTURAL NOTES. Grown generally as a pot-plant, under which condition 
it fruits very freely ; it also ripens extremely well in fine seasons on the open 
wa 1 !, and is of good quality. 

BLACK HAMBURGH (1) Plate VII. An oval black Sweet water Grape. 
Season : excellent as an early-forcing Grape, and the best of all for a 


(Bunch ^ ; berries natural size.) 

general crop, but requires careful attention to keep it in good condition 
after Christmas. Merits : first-class in every sense ; the best and most 
useful Grape in cultivation. 


SYN. Black Tripoli, Braddictts Seedling Hamburgh, Ohasselas de 
Jerusalem, Frankenthal, Garston Black Hamburgh, Gros Bleu, Hamp- 
ton Court Black Hamburgh, Kish-mish Ali, Knevett's Black. Hamburgh, 
Muscatellier noir, Pope Hamburgh, Red Hamburgh, Tripoli, Victoria 
Hamburgh, Warner's Hamburgh, and Trollinger, the best known 
German synonym. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, with a remarkably fine constitution ; the 
wood moderately strong, always ripening well ; very fruitful ; young shoots pale 
green, yet occasionally tinged with red. Leaves of medium size, nearly smooth, 
pale green in colour. Leaf-stalks and venation sometimes reddish, and when so, 
the leaves in dying off become slightly coloured, and thus differ from the ordinary 
dull yellow colour which the decaying leaves of this variety usually assume. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium sized, ovate in shape, with broad shoulders, 
generally very compact, but sometimes loose and straggling ; average weight 
from one pound to two pounds ; sets very freely at all times. Berries large, from 
one inch to one-and-a-half inch in diameter, roundish-ovate in shape, but varying 
greatly in this respect, sometimes being quite round ; the smaller berries generally 
ovate and quite smooth, the larger ones having a distinctly hammered appearance. 
Skin deep bluish black, covered with a fine bloom. Flesh firm, yet tender, juicy 
and melting, with a rich sugary and very pleasant flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. The Black Hamburgh Grape is stated to have been imported 
from Hamburgh, in the early part of the last century, by Mr. John Warner, a 
London merchant, who established a Vineyard. Hence it became known as 
Warner's Black Hamburgh i.e., Mr. Warner's Black Grape, from Hamburgh; 
Hamburgh being the seaport town of northern Germany. It is essentially a German 
Grape, being met with in every part of that country where Grapes are cultivated, 
and under very numerous synonyms ; the best known being that of Trollinger and 
Frankenthaler, which, of late years, has been much adopted in this country by 
some as synonymous with Black Hamburgh, by others as representing a larger 
and coarser variety. The confusion that has arisen in this respect is entirely 
due to accidental circumstances. A very excellent illustration of this was afforded 
in the great conservatory at Chiswick. The varieties of Vines planted therein 
were procured from all quarters ; one half being planted in an outside border, 
and the others in a shallow border inside. On fruiting, the varieties of Black 
Hamburgh, which were planted in the outside border, were all large, the berries 
round, with a hammered appearance, etc. ; while the others were small, smooth, 
ovate, etc. , and generally sweeter. The former were duly labelled Frankenthal, 
the latter Black Hamburgh, eyes of each being propagated and grown under 
reversed conditions the appearance and the characters of each were alike 
reversed. There is no permanent distinction among the many so-called varieties of 
Black Hamburgh, the Mill Hill and Dutch excepted, which are so decidedly 
distinct that no possible confusion need arise about them. 

Amongst the other synonyms, Black Tripoli was long considered to apply to 
a larger and superior variety, through its excellent and extensive cultivation at 
Welbeck, but that name is now obsolete ; the same may be said of Braddick's, 
Garnston, and Knevett's Black Hamburghs. Pope Hamburgh was so called 
through one of the ancestors of Basil Fitzherbert, Esq., of Swynnerton Hall, 
a Staffordshire, bringing cuttings from a friend who resided near Rome, upwards of 
one hundred years ago, and naming it The Pope. The original Vine may still be 
seen at Swynnerton Hall. The late Mr. Fleming, of Trentham, on seeing this Vine, 
considered it a distinct variety, and distributed it as The Pope's Hamburgh. 
Hampton Court Black Hamburgh is so called from the large Vine at Hampton 
Court Palace, and has the reputation of being the true variety, producing small 
ovate berries. Victoria Hamburgh was for a long time popular, as the largest 
and finest variety, but that name is not now referred to. Even the Red Ham- 


burgh had its champions with regard to its distinctive features, but there are not 
many growers now who are proud of producing it. From France, we have 
received it under the names of Gros Bleu, Chasselas de Jerusalem, and Musca- 
tellier Noir ; but these are merely modern nursery names. In France proper, this 
Grape is scarcely known, excepting under the English name of Black Hamburgh 
or the German one of Frankenthaler. In the Revue Horticole, 1882, 480, a 
coloured figure of a Grape named Violet Kish-mish Ali is given ; this variety is 
stated by M. Pulliat to be distinct from the Black Hamburgh by reason of the 
foliage dying off red, but this character is, as already stated, not constant. 

Amongst the many remarkable Black Hamburgh Vines in this country, the 
following may be noted : 

1. The Vine at Cumberland Lodge, Windsor Park, fig. 19, which completely 
fills a house one hundred and thirty-eight feet four inches long and twenty feet 
wide, and has a stem three feet eight inches in circumference. This noble Vine 
is nearly twice the size of the one at Hampton Court, and is in perfect health 
and vigour ; the produce being good. The crop of 1879 was two thousand 
bunches, of an average weight of three-quarters of a pound, or a total of one 
thousand five hundred pounds of Grapes. 

2. The Great Vine at Hampton Court, which, if not the largest, is probably 
the best known. This, which is stated to be one hundred and twenty years old, 
fills a house sixty-five feet long by thirty feet wide, and has a main stem three 
and a half feet in circumference. This Vine is in remarkably good health, and 
annually bears a large crop of small bunches as many as one thousand seven 
hundred in one season. 

3. Another celebrated Vine is that planted by the late Mr. P. Kay, at 
Finchley, which, in 1862, when six years old, entirely filled a house ninety feet 
in length and eighteen feet in width, and which annually produces prodigious 
crops of magnificent Grapes. 

4. The Vine at Manresa Lodge, Eoehampton, the largest Vine in this country, 
planted in 1862, filling a house four hundred and twenty-four feet long, and pro- 
ducing a crop of eight hundred bunches of excellent fruit. 

5. The Vine at Sillwood Park, Sunninghill, a descendant of that at Cumber- 
land Lodge, and filling a house one hundred and twenty-nine feet in length by 
twelve feet in width. It is in excellent health ; the main stem straight, about 
three feet in circumference, and rising near the front, about the centre of the 
house, nine or ten side branches being trained horizontally, and supplying the 
bearing rods. The crop averages one thousand eight hundred bunches of fair size 

6. The Vine at Kinnell House, Breadalbane, Scotland, stated to have been 
planted in 1832, and now to cover a house one hundred and seventy-two feet 
long by twenty-five feet broad. 

CULTURAL NOTES. The Black Hamburgh is the standard and national Grape 
of England ; the most generally grown, and by far the best. It is, moreover, 
the easiest of all Grapes to cultivate, the treatment required being of the ordinary 
character, as recommended in the previous chapters. It is the gardener's friend 
amongst Grapes. Many examples of superior cultivation might be mentioned. 
Amongst extraordinary results, Mr. Hunter, of Lambton Castle, has the honour 
of having grown the largest bunch of this variety, which was exhibited at Belfast 
in 1874, and weighed twenty-one pounds twelve ounces. A second bunch, 
weighing thirteen pounds two ounces, also grown by Mr. Hunter, was shown in 
Manchester in 1875. Mr. Meredith, of Garston, had a bunch weighing nine and 
a half pounds in 1865. Mr. Kayne, Chelmsford, a bunch weighing eight pounds 
fourteen ounces, in 1860. Mr. Davis, at Oakhill, in 1858, a bunch weighing 
eight and a half pounds, the single berries of which measured four and a half 
inches in circumference. 




Bunch ^ ; berries natural size.) 


BLACK JULY (6). A round black Sweetwater Grape. Season: 
first early. Merits : valuable only on account of its earliness. 

SYN. July, Early Slack July, Raisin de la Madeleine. 

VINE. Very free and vigorous in growth, and an abundant bearer. 

FRUIT. Bunches rather long and loose, and sometimes set badly. Berries 
small, round. Skin rather thick, deep purple, with a fine bloom. Flesh sweet 
and juicy, not rich, and of no particular character. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Very suitable for planting against a wall in the open air, 
where it usually ripens freely. 

BLACK LISBON. Alicante. 

BLACK MONUKKA (2). Plate VIII. An oval black Sweetwater 
Grape. Season : mid-season. Merits : one of the most pleasantly- 
flavoured of Grapes, particularly agreeable to the palate, and useful 
to cut up for sweetmeats : but can only be recommended for cultiva- 
tion as an extra sort where plenty of means are at command. 

VINE. Growth remarkably strong and robust, requiring considerable space. 
Leaves large, rugose, with a reddish tinge ; the leaf-stalks deep red. A 
somewhat shy fruiter, young plants seldom cropping well. 

FRUIT. Bunches very large, frequently measuring twenty-four inches to 
twenty-six inches in length, and broadly shouldered, but of a remarkably regular 
tapering form, and weighing from three pounds to five pounds. Berries small, 
long ovate, inclining to be conical, or in shape like an acorn, measuring seven- 
eighths of an inch in length, and three-eighths of an inch in diameter. It cannot 
be said to set well, although it is very regular, and the berries are all uniform ; 
yet there are no perfect seeds, only one or at most two half formed, and these 
being soft, like the flesh, are, as well as the skins, eaten with it. Skin thin, 
adhering to the pulp, which is firm, fleshy, not melting, yet very tender and full 
of juice. In colour it approaches black when well ripened, but is more frequently 
half-grizzly, and with a thin coating of bloom. 

HISTORY, ETC. The Black Monukka is a Grape supposed to be of Indian 
origin. It was introduced by the late Mr. Johnson, gardener at Hampton Court, 
and was by him sent to the Horticultural Society, and planted in the Great 
Conservatory at Chiswick, where it is now growing. It has been from thence 
distributed, but is not much cultivated in this country. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Ripens freely under the same treatment as Black 
Hamburgh, and fruits most freely on young rods from established plants. It 
requires very little thinning. Some years ago we made some interesting 
experiments in hybridising this Grape with the Black Hamburgh, and succeeded 
in raising and fruiting fifteen plants, all of a singular yet widely different 
character, but none worthy of cultivation. 

BLACK MOROCCO (71). An oval black Vinous Grape. Season: 
late. Merits : one of the most beautiful of Grapes when well grown, 
but its uncertain character renders it scarcely worthy of cultivation. 

SYN. Ansley's Large Oval, Morocco, Black Muscadel, HorsforiKs 
Seedling, Kempsey Alicante, Le Caur. 

VINE. Growth strong and robust ; a very shy cropper. Leaves large, rugose, 
much cut, with reddish venations and foot-stalks, dying off reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, from twelve inches to fifteen inches long, on very 
stout foot-stalks, with strong irregular shoulder. Berries long-ovate, very large 


generally very badly set ; indeed, this is one of the worst setting Grapes grown ; 
stamens deflexed. Skin thick, reddish brown, becoming nearly black when well 
ripened, but always paler round the stalk, which is very stout. Flesh very 
firm, and when well ripened, very rich and piquant in flavour and extremely 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a very old Grape, to be met with in old gardens. It 
is figured in the Pomological Magazine, vol. iii., as Horsforth's Seedling, but it 
is not cultivated to any extent. Some years ago it gained considerable notoriety 
at Kempsey through its very successful cultivation, and it was for a time con- 
sidered distinct, and so received the name of Kempsey Alicante. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires artificial impregnation of the flowers to set it 
properly ; also a good deal of heat to ripen the fruit. 

BLACK MUSCADINE (7). A round black Sweetwater Grape. Season: 
early. Merits : second-rate. 

SYN. Chasselas noir, Black Chasselas, Chasselas de Fontainebleau 
rouge hatif. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, and very fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches of medium size, rather close and compact, well set. Berries 
small, round. Skin thin, deep purplish black, with a thin bloom. Flesh firm, 
yet juicy and sweet, resembling the Royal Muscadine ; very pleasant. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed against a wall in the open air in good seasons. 


BLACK PRINCE (3) Plate IX. An oval black Sweetwater Grape. 
Season: early. Merits: extremely handsome in appearance, and 
valued on this account, as well as for its free-fruiting properties, but 
in regard to flavour it is far inferior to Black Hamburgh. It can only 
be classed as a second-rate sort. 

SYN. Pococtfs Damascus, Cambridge Botanic Garden, Boston. 

YINE. Very free and vigorous in constitution, and very fruitful. Leaves 
roundish, not much cut, dying off purplish in autumn. 

FRUIT. Bunches very long, frequently twenty or twenty-four inches, with 
a long stalk, tapering very regularly and gradually from the shoulders down- 
wards ; sometimes they are almost cylindrical in shape. Berries medium- 
sized, ovate, always well set. Skin thick, dark purple in colour, with a thick 
bloom. Flesh dark, juicy, and sweet, but generally with a slight astringency, 
which is not much relished. 

HISTORY, ETC. A very old variety, to be found in most old collections of 
Grapes, although we have never met with it in Continental collections. It is 
seldom planted now. 

CULTURAL NOTES. One of the most free-fruiting and most easily cultivated 
Grapes in existence, ripening, under the same treatment, a little in advance of 
Black Hamburgh, always well coloured, even when not thoroughly ripe. It 
requires to be used soon after becoming ripe, as when allowed to hang the berries 
soon commence to shrivel. The late Mr. Hill, of Keele Hall Gardens, who was 
one of the most successful cultivators and exhibitors of this Grape, had it 
grafted on the Black Hamburgh. It is one of the best black Grapes for the 
open air. 



BLACK ST. PETER'S. Alicante. 
BLACK TOKAY. Alicante. 


(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 


BLACK TRIPOLI. Black Hamburgh. 

BOSTON. Black Prince. 

Bowoon MUSCAT. Muscat of Alexandria. 


BUCKLAND SWEBTWATEB (20) Plate X. A round white Sweet- 
water Grape. Season : early, useful for summer. Merits : very showy 
and handsome, but second-rate in quality. 

VINE. Growth moderately strong and free, tolerably fruitful. Leaves similar 
to those of Black Hamburgh, dying off a very pale yellow. 

FRUIT Bunches medium-sized, averaging from three-quarters of a pound to 
two pounds in weight, rather short, with very broad shoulders ; always well-set. 
Berries large or above the medium size, round. Skin thin, almost transparent, 
greenish white, assuming a pale straw-yellow colour when fully ripe, and if 
allowed to hang for any length of time it becomes almost white, and very 
different in appearance from freshly ripened fruit ; the skin also becomes thick 
and tough as well as the flesh, and the entire character of the Grape is altered. 
Flesh thin, soft, juicy, and with a pleasant Sweetvvater flavour; when kept long 
it becomes almost tasteless. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is an English seedling Grape, raised at Buckland, near 
Ileigate, by a gentleman who brought the seed from the Continent. Cuttings of 
the seedling plant were given to Messrs. Ivery & Son, nurserymen, Dorkiug, and 
one or two other parties. Mr. Ivery grafted it on the Black Hamburgh, and was 
successful in making it grow ; very bingularly all the others died, even the 
seedling plant, so that Mr. Ivery held the entire stock, and sent it out to the 
public about the year 1860. In some respects it resembles the Golden Hamburgh 
went out a few years previously, and \vhich it soon displaced, becoming the most 
popular white Grape. Excepting the Muscat of Alexandria and Foster's Seed- 
ling, there is no other white Grape so often seen at exhibitions. 

CULTURAL NOTES. It succeeds admirably under the same treatment as the 
Black Hamburgh, for which it forms a handsome companion ; but is not so 
robust in constitution. 

BURCHARDT'S Prince. Aramon. 
CABAS A LA REINE. Muscat of Alexandria. 

CABRAL (12). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. Season: mid- 
season. .Merits: a fine showy Grape, second-rate in quality. 

VINE. Growth strong and robust ; the wood somewhat gross, of a pale colour, 
and very downy around the buds, which are very large. Leaves large, soft, and 
covered with down, dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, short, with stout shoulders, generally well set. 
Berries above the medium size, roundish oval, on short and very strong warted 
loot-stalks. Skin thick and rather tough, of a pale yellow colour. Flesh firm, 
juicy, sweet, but not rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. Grown in the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens, Chiswick, 
for some time. Not in general cultivation. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires heat to set it properly, and also to ripen the 



CAILLABA. Angers Frontignan. 
CALABRIAN KAISIN. Kaisin de Calabre. 

(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 



CANON HALL MUSCAT (49). A round white Muscat Grape. Season: 
late ; requires heat. Merits : remarkably handsome, and of excellent 
quality, but inferior to Muscat of Alexandria for general purposes. 

YINE. Growth very strong and somewhat gross ; the wood being thick, soft, 
and frequently not ripening well. Buds large. Leaves large, pale green, some- 
what flabby, not so deeply lobed as the common Muscat, dying off yellow. 

FKUIT. Bunches large, or above the medium size, bat rather shorter often badly 
set, with broad strong shoulders, and thick fleshy foot-stalks ; flowers have six 
and seven stamens frequently. Berries very large, round, or nearly so. Skin thin, 
pale straw-yellow. Flesh firm, juicy, very rich, and with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is stated to be a seedling from the Muscat of Alexandria, 
but its origin is uncertain. The earliest trace of it is at Canon Hall, Yorkshire, 
from whence it was sent to Lord Bagot. It is figured in the Transactions of the 
Horticultural Society, 2nd ser., i., 169. It was at one time largely cultivated, 
a Yine or two being found in every collection of Grapes ; but it is every year 
becoming scarcer. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Few Grapes have been the cause of so much trouble to 
gardeners of the older school as the Canon Hall Muscat, through the difficulty 
experienced in its satisfactory cultivation. It is of rather bad constitution, the 
wood being often soft and pithy, and not ripening well ; thus many spurs become 
blank. Again, it is difficult to set, excepting a high temperature is maintained, 
and great care is taken to impregnate the berries artificially. Some of the largest 
and finest examples we have heard of were grown by Mr. Kay, of Finchley, in 
1891, the berries measuring three and three-quarter inches round, by four and a 
quarter inches in length ; Mr. Kay grows it largely and with great success for 
market purposes, realising a very high price. 

CHAMPION HAMBURGH. Mill Hill Hamburgh. 

CHAOUCH (13). An ovate white Sweetwater Grape. Season: first 
early. Merits : recommended as a pleasant early variety. 

SYN. Chavoush. 

YINE. Growth strong and robust ; fruitful. Leaves large. 

FRUIT. Bunches of medium size, long, somewhat loose, and frequently thinly 
set, stamens deflexed. Berries large, roundish-ovate. Skin clear, transparent, 
thin. Flesh very melting, juicy, sweet and pleasant, sometimes highly perfumed. 

HISTORY, ETC. A Grape named Chavoush was introduced from Turkey about 
eighteen years ago, as stated in the first edition of Vines and Vine Culture, with 
high commendations as being the favourite Grape of the Sultan, etc., but which 
proved to be a coarse, late, worthless sort. Specimens of the true variety were 
last season kindly sent - us by Herr Horvath, Funfkirchen, Hungary, which is 
now described. It is, as stated by Herr Horvath, earlier than the Black Ham- 
burgh, and is, in Constantinople, the favourite Grape, occupying the same 
position there as the Chasselas does in Paris. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Ripens freely without much heat, but requires it to set the 
fruit properly. 

CHAPTAL (22). A round white Sweetwater Grape. Season : r mid- 
season. Merits: second-rate. 

YINE. Growth free and vigorous, the shoots always ripening well ; very fruit- 
ful. Leaves medium-sized, dying off yellow. 



FRUIT. Punches large, or above medium-sized, of a long tapering form, with 
generally one large shoulder; always well set. Berries medium-sized, round. 
Skin pale straw, nearly transparent. Flesh firm, juicy, fairly sweet and pleasant, 
but not rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. This has been grown for a good many years at Chiswick, and 
also at Trentham by the late Mr. Fleming, where it was esteemed, but it is not 
in general cultivation. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires much the same treatment as Royal Muscadine, 
of which it might be termed a large-bunched coarse variety. 


(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 

CHARLESWORTH TOKAY. Muscat of Alexandria. 
CHASSELAS. -Royal Muscadine. 

CHASSELAS DE FLORENCE (21 \ A round white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : second-rate. 
VINE. Growth free and vigorous, the shoots slender, always ripens well ; very 


FRUIT. Bunches long, medium-sized, and well set. Berries small, or below 
medium size, round. Skin thin, transparent, pale straw, or nearly white ; a 
great portion of the berries assuming a violet tinge, and others a cinnamon- 
brown. Flesh firm, sweet, and very pleasant. 

HISTORY. Grown in the Royal Horticultural Society's collection, and received 
from Messrs. Baumann, of Bolwyller. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires the same treatment as the Royal Muscadine in 
all respects. 




CHASSELAS MusQufe (58) Plate XL A round white Muscat Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : first-rate in quality, but unsatisfactory. 

SYN. -Muscat de Jesu, Chasselas Masque de Nantes, Cranford Mus- 
cat, Eugenien Frontignan, Josling's St. Albany Muscat Muscadine, 
Muscat Fleur d Or anger, Muscat Regnier, Muscat Orange du Portugal, 
Primavis Muscat. 

VINE. Growth moderately free an! robust, the shoots occasionally very 
strong ; free fruiting. Leaves r.tther small, roundish, or but slightly lobed, 
ripening off early, of a pale yellow colour. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium sized, tapering, on rather long, but strong foot- 
stalks, and well shouldered ; generally well set. Berries small, round, pale 
greenish white, changing to amber, and frequently with a tioge of russet when 
fully ripe. Skin thin, very subject to crack just as it is approaching maturity, so 
that before being fully ripe three parts of the. berries have to be cut out, and the 
bunch is a mere skeleton. Flesh very firm, almost crisp, very rich and sparkling 
in flavour, and with a strong Muscat aroma. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is an old Grape, which has been long cultivated in this 
country, and also on the Continent, under a multitude of synonyms. It re- 
produces itself with tolerable correctness from seed. In 1845, it appeared as- 
Josling's St. Albans, and was described in the Gardeners' Chronicle; and, 
subsequently in the Journal of the Horticultural Society, by Mr. R. Thompson, as 
a new and excellent Grape, greatly superior to the Frontignans, and hence 
obtained great popularity. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Apart from its liability to crack, this Grape requires no 
special cultivation. It succeeds well in pots, and ripens well in the ordinary 
Vinery. To prevent cracking, Mr. Blackmore allows it to fruit on suckers, or 
quite young wood, and is very successful. It is a Vine that suckers freely. It 
is also recommended to be grown in a rather poor inside border, so that little 
water may reach the roots whilst the berries are swelling and ripening. Ringing; 
and notching the shoots just below the bunch and even the stalks of the bunches 
themselves -have also been tried by some, but cannot be recommended, as any 
check to the vigour must intensify the cracking. 

CHASSELAS NOIR. Black Muscadine. 

CHASSELAS ROSE (33). A round red Sweetwater Grape. Season : 
early. Merits : very desirable to cultivate as a pleasing contrast 
amongst black and white varieties. 


SYN. Chasselas Rose de Falloux, Chasselas Rose Jalabert, Chasselas 
Rouge, Chasselas Rouge Royal, Red Chasselas, 

VINE. Growth very free and vigorous, producing fine, well-ripened wood ; 
exceedingly fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium sized, always well set. Berries small, round. 
SHn thin, transparent, of a very clear rosy red when well ripened, and very 
pretty. Flesh firm and juicy, with a pleasant Sweetwater flavour. This is, in all 
respects except colour, similar to Royal Muscadine. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Andre, of Angers, and cultivated at 
Chiswick for many years. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds admirably as an orchard-house or cool green- 
house Grape, ripening even more freely than the Royal Muscadine. 

CHASSELAS ROUGE. Chasselas Rose. 

CHASSELAS VIBERT (23). A round white Sweet water Grape. 
Season : first early. Merits : first-class ; one of the very best early 

VINE. Growth free, moderately robust, and very fruitful. Leaves of medium 
size, round, deeply toothed, but slightly lobed. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, from six to twelve inches long, freely set. Berries 
medium, round. Skin, thin, clear white. Flesh very firm, yet juicy, sweet and 
pleasant ; one of the best Sweetwater Grapes. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received by Mr. Rivers from M. Vibert, of Angers. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Excellent for cultivation in an unheated orchard-house or 
Vinery ; ripens freely ; about ten days in advance of Royal Muscadine. 

CHASSELAS YIOLET (34). Around red Sweetwater Grape. Season: 
early. Merits : second rate. 

VINE. Moderately robust. The young shoots and leaves have a distinct violet 
tinge ; hence the name. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, compact ; sets freely. Berries small, round, becoming 
red directly after flowering. When ripe they are light red, and when over ripe 
still lighter in colour. Flesh firm, sweet, and pleasant. An interesting variety. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from Herr Horvath, Hungary. Believed to be of 
French origin. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will ripen in an orchard house. 

CHAVOUSH. Chaouch. 

CIOTAT (24). A round white Sweetwater Grape. Season : early. 
Merits : second-rate in quality ; cultivated only as a curiosity. 

SYN. Malmsey Muscadine, Parsley-leaved. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, producing small but always well-ripened 
wood ; very fruitful. Leaves small, bright green, deeply laciniated, very dis- 
tinct in appearance. 


FRUIT. Bunches small and thin, but setting freely. Berries small, round. 
Skin thin, transparent, white. Flesh firm, sweet, and pleasant. 

HISTORY, ETC. A very old sort, apparently a sport from Royal Muscadine, 
which it resembles in every respect but the deeply cut leaves and somewhat 
smaller berries. 

CULTURAL NOTES. This Vine is very frequently grown as a purely ornamental 
variety for the beauty of the foliage. It fruits freely on open walls, and also in 
cool greenhouses. 

CLIVE HOUSE SEEDLING. Alnwick Seedling. 
COMMON MUSCADINE. Royal Muscadine. 

COOPER'S BLACK. Greatly resembles Gros Maroc, if it be not 
identical with that variety. 

CORINTHE NOIB. Black Corinth. 
CRANFORD MUSCAT. Chasselas Musque. 
CUMBERLAND LODGE. Black Hamburgh. 
CURRANT GRAPE. Black Corinth. 

DIAMANT TRAUBE (14). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. Season : 
early. Merits : first-class. 

VINE. Of strong and robust growth ; fruitful. Leaves large and downy. 

FRUIT. Bunches short, not very large, not well set, stamens deflexed. Berries 
large, roundisa ovate, of a clear greenish yellow colour. Flesh firm, sweet, and 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Leroy, of Angers, many years ago, and 
grown at Chiswick. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Fruits freely, and ripens in an unheated orchard-house at 

DR. HOGG (59). A round white Muscat Grape. Season: mid- 
season. Merits : first-class ; one of the best flavoured and best consti- 
tutioned of the smaller Muscat Grapes ; deserving of cultivation. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, producing firm, moderate-sized wood, which 
always ripens well ; very fruitful. Leaves medium sized. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, measuring from twelve inches to eighteen inches, and 
tapering to rather a narrow point ; shoulders long and rather loose, drooping, 
always well set. Berries medium sized, round, on strong stalks. Skin membra- 
neous, very clear, almost transparent, and when quite ripe, assuming an amber 
tint. Flesh firm, very sweet, and with a rich Muscat or Frontignan flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a seedling raised by the late Mr. Pearson, of Chilwell, 
about 1869, from Duchess of Buccleuch, and was exhibited before the Fruit Com- 
mittee in 1871, and awarded a First Class Certificate. It is now very general in 
cultivation, taking the place of Chasselas Musque. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds well in an ordinary Vinery, but requires a littld 
more heat than the Black Hamburgh to ripen thoroughly. It is, however, one 
of the hardiest of its class. 



DUCHESS OF BUCCLEUCH (60). A round white Muscat Grape. 
Reason : mid-season. Merits : first-class as to flavour, but, owing to 
its uncertain ripening, scarcely worthy of cultivation. 

(Bunch ^ ; berries natural size.) 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous, the wood ripening freely ; extremely 
fruitful. Leaves roundish, much serrated, and generally of a deep green colour. 



FRUIT. Bunches very long and tapering, with large drooping shoulders ; always 
well set. Berries small, round. Skin thin, greenish white, assuming a yellowish 
tinge when lully ripe, with a thick bloom. Flesh tender, very juicy, sweet and 
rich, with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a seedling raised by Mr. W. Thomson, when gardener 
to the Duke of Buccleuch, at Dalkeith. It received a First Class Certificate from 
the Royal Horticultural Society in 1863. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will grow and fruit well in a Hamburgh-house, but to 
ripen it properly more heat is required. When grown in a cool temperature, 
it is somewhat apt to shank, and many of the berries remain of a sickly greenish 
hue, and never become sweet. 

DUKE OF BUCCLEUCH (25) Plate XII. A round white Sweetwater 
Grape. Season : early ; best suited for summer use. Merits : first- 
class ; one of the noblest and handsomest Grapes in cultivation. 

VINE. Growth very robust, inclining to be gross, the young shoots being 
thick, somewhat soft, and ripening badly ; not very productive. Leaves large, 
ileshy, roundish, deeply serrated, and but slightly lobed. 

FRUIT. Blenches large, ovate, or rather short with broad stout shoulders ; 
stalk stout, inclining to be gross and fleshy. Berries very large, roundish, some- 
what flattened at both ends. Skin thin, of a pale greenish yellow, and becoming 
a fine amber colour when fully ripe ; occasionally subject to spot. Flesh exceed- 
ingly tender and juicy, with a very rich and remarkably pleasant flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This noble Grape is a seedling raised by Mr. W. Thomson, of 
Clovenfords, when gardener to the Duke of Buccleuch, at Dalkeith. It was 
awarded a First Class Certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1872. 

CULTURAL NOTES. The most successful cultivator of this Grape is, no doubt, 
the raiser himself, Mr. Thomson, at Clovenfords. The enormous quantity of 
fruit and the magnificent quality of the same, testify that there, at least, no 
difficulty is experienced in its cultivation. At Drumlanrig it succeeds remarkably 
well ; as it did also with the late Mr. Stevens nt Trentham, and with Mr. Harrison 
Weir in a ground Vinery. It is somewhat difficult to establish, but once started 
it grows with great luxuriance, and fruits freely on the young rods. It should, 
therefore, be pruned on the long spur system, and grown in an inside border and 
in a somewhat dry atmosphere. The bunches when in flower should be carefully 
set, and a temperature and general treatment provided similar to that given to 
the Black Hamburgh. 

DUTCH HAMBURGH (77). A round, black, Vinous Grape. Season: 
mid-season ; apt to shrivel when allowed to hang. Merits : second-rate 
quality ; very handsome in appearance. 

SYN. Wilmofs Hamburgh. 

VINE. Growth strong and robust, the shoots somewhat thicker, and with the 
bark paler in colour than the Black Hamburgh ; very free fruiting. Leaves large, 
dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bundles medium-sized, rather short, with broad shoulders, very often 
badly set, a great portion of the berries being imperfectly developed. Berries 
very large, roundish, inclining to oblate, having an uneven surface, giving them 
a hammered appearance. Skin thick, black, adhering to the flesh, covered with 
a dense bloom, very handsome. Flesh firm, often hollow at the core, coarse and 
harsh in flavour, excepting when highly ripened, when it is then sweet and sugary, 
but wanting in juiciness. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a very old Grape, and has been much confounded with 
the Black Hamburgh, from which it is very distinct. It is more handsome in 


appearance, and was at one time very extensively cultivated by Mr. "Wilmot, 
market gardener at Isleworth, under the name of Wilmot's Hamburgh. The 
Mill Hill Hamburgh, which is sometimes regarded as synonymous, is a very 
distinct and much superior variety. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires much the same treatment as Black Hamburgh, 
but to set the berries properly it is the better for a rather warm temperature at 
that period. It is not much cultivated. 

DUTCH SWEETWATER (26). A round white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : first early. Merits : first rate in quality, but so uncertain in 
setting as to be scarcely worth, growing. 

VINE. Growth moderately vigorous, the young shoots inclining to be gross, 
and frequently not ripening well ; fruitful. Leaves roundish, much serrated. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, short, with strong, broad shoulders, frequently very 
badly set, a great portion of the berries being imperfectly developed, stamens 
deflexed. Berries medium-sized, round. Skin thin, white, almost transparent, 
showing the venation, and with a slight bloom and tinges of russet when highly 
ripened. Flesh pale, sweet, juicy, tender, and very pleasant. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is the White Sweetwater of Speechly, and one of the oldest 
of Grapes, but it is now superseded, and is fast going out of cultivation. 

CULTURAL NOTES. This Grape has long been in repute as the best variety for 
open-air cultivation, but it is often confounded with the Royal Muscadine, which 
is a much more certain cropper and a superior variety. 



EARLY GREEN MADEIRA. Grove-End Sweetwater. 

EARLY KIENZHEIM. Grove-End Sweetwater. 

EARLY LEIPSIC. Grove-End Sweetwater. 

EARLY WHITE MALVASIA. Grove-End Sweetwater. 

ESPERIONE. Espiran. 

ESPIRAN (78). Around black Vinous Grape. Season: mid-season. 
Merits : quite third-rate. 

SYN. Esperione. 

VINE. Groivth very free and vigorous, but never gross, the young shoots being 
rather slender than otherwise, of a reddish tinge, very rugose, and when ripe often 
having the bark distinctly streaked with pale and dai'k brown ; very fruitful. 
Leaves deeply lobed and toothed, rugose, the stalks and venation of a reddish 

FRUIT. Bunches from nine to twelve inches long, tapering, with a large 
shoulder, always well set ; stalk thin, but strong. Berries medium-sized, quite 
round, marked on the one side with a distinct suture, and often leaving the style 
point at the apex. Skin thick, very dark purple, and with a thick coating of 
bloom. Flesh firm, not very tender or juicy, and generally with a somewhat 
harsh flavour, except it be highly ripened when it becomes moderately sweet. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is an old Grape, long cultivated in this country. Mr. 
Aiton, of the Royal Gardens, Windsor, writing in the Transactions of the Horticul- 
tural Society, in 1818, recommends it very strongly, and a very correct illustration 
of it is there given. Subsequently, writers seem to have confused the Espirau 
with the Black Hamburgh, in consequence of which it attained a popularity 
which it did not deserve as an open-air Grape of high quality. 



CULTURAL NOTES. Kequires treatment very similar to that of the Black 
Hamburgh to ripen its fruit properly. The plant is very hardy and vigorous, 
and the fruit colours long before it is completely ripe, which makes it appear a 
good outdoor variety, but it is never so sweet or pleasant to the taste as the 
Black Hamburgh under similar conditions. 


(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 

EARINEUX NOIR. Miller's Burgundy. 


FERDINAND DE LESSEPS (50). An oval white Muscat Grape. Season: 
mid-season. Merits : first-class in quality, but too small for general 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous, producing strong, firm wood ; moderately 
fruitful. Leaves large, deeply lobed, and cut ; somewhat rugose. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, tapering, with little or no shoulder, and closely set. 
Berries below medium size, and oval in shape. Skin very thin and tender, of a 
pale amber, or golden colour. Flesh tender, juicy, remarkably sweet and pleasant, 
with a distinct aroma of the Strawberry, which scents the atmosphere of the 
house wherein it may be growing. 

HISTORY, ETC. This peculiar Grape was raised by the late Mr. Pearson, from 
a cross between Royal Muscadine and the Strawberry Grape, and was certificated 
by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1870. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will ripen in the same temperature as the Black Ham- 
burgh, and under similar conditions. 

FLEMING'S PRINCE. Trentham Black. 

FOSTER'S SEEDLING (15) Plate XIII. An oval white Sweetwater 
Grape. Season: early, or first early. Merits: first-class in quality 
as an early Grape ; a certain cropper, and one of the best white 
Grapes in cultivation. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, the wood moderately robust, ripening freely ; 
always very fruitful. Leaves large, deeply toothed and lobed, slightly downy, 
and dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, well shouldered ; stalks slender, always well 
set. Berries medium-sized, oval. Skin very thin, clear and transparent ; at 
first of a greenish tinge, changing to a greenish yellow or nearly white when 
fully ripe, and occasionally having a tinge of cinnamon-russet on the most exposed 
side. Flesh tender and" melting, very juicy and pleasantly flavoured ; when 
allowed to hang long after ripening, the skin becomes thick and leathery, and the 
flesh hard. 

HISTORY, ETC. This fine Grape is a seedling raised by Mr. Foster, gardener 
to Lord Downe, Beningborough Hall, York, from a cross between the Black 
Morocco and the Sweetwater, and came from the same potful of seedlings as that 
which produced the variety called Lady Downe's Seedling. This was about the 
year 1835, but it was not sent out or distributed until many years afterwards, 
and its merits were not recognised until about 1860. It is now to be found in 
every collection. 

CULTURAL NOTES. This is one of the very finest of white Grapes, and one of 
the easiest to cultivate ; it forces well, and succeeds along with the Black 
Hamburgh, or in good seasons will ripen well in an unheated house. "We have 
seen it with Mr. Dunn, at Dalkeith, exceedingly good as a late variety. 

FRANKENTHAL. Black Hamburgh. 


GOLDEN BORDEAUX. Royal Muscadine. 

GOLDEN CHAMPION (17). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season: early. Merits: first-class in quality, but constitutionally 
weak and uncertain. 


VINE. Growth somewhat gross, the young shoots being often very thick, soft, 
pithy, and badly ripened ; a moderate cropper. Leaves large, roundish, very 
deeply toothed, thick, and soft ; ripening oft' early of a deep yellow colour. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, well shouldered, ovate in outline ; stalk stout and 
fleshy, that of the berry being stout and warted. Berries very large, obovate, 
slightly pointed, in some cases round. Skin thin, clear pale greenish yellow, 
inclining to pale yellow when fully ripe. Flesh firm, very juicy, the flavour 
resembling somewhat that of a very sweet Black Hamburgh, and very pleasant to 
the palate. It is a somewhat shy setter, and the berries are often subject to 
the spot. 

HISTORY, ETC. This noble-looking Grape is a seedling raised by Mr. "W. 
Thomson, when gardener to the Duke of Buccleuch, at Dalkeith. It was raised 
from a Grape that was a cross between Champion Hamburgh and Bo wood Muscat, 
and received a First Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society 
in 1868. 

CULTURAL NOTES. This fine Grape is somewhat difficult to cultivate ; it is a 
free grower in some places, but in others it makes very slow progress. It fruits 
better on young rods than on spurs. At Dalkeith it succeeded well with Mr. 
Thomson, grafted on the Black Hamburgh. 

GOLDEN HAMBURGH (27), A round white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early, but not suitable for forcing. Merits : second-rate, and 
unworthy of cultivation. 

SYN. Busby's Golden Hamburgh, Luglienga Bianca. 

VINE. Growth moderately free and robust, the young shoots somewhat soft 
and pithy, and ripening badly ; a moderate cropper. Leaves large, broad, and 
tiabby, of a pale sickly green colour, as if in bad health, and dying off early. 

FRUIT. Bunches above medium size, with broad shoulders, very loose and 
straggling ; sets freely. Berries large, roundish, occasionally ovate. Skin thin, 
pale yellow in colour. Flesh tender, melting (might be termed squashy), sweet, 
but never rich. It requires to be eatsn soon after becoming ripe, as it speedily 
becomes discoloured and loses flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This was stated to be a seedling raised by Mr. Bushy, 
gardener at Stockwood Park, Luton, and a cross between Stillward's Sweetwater 
and Black Hamburgh, but there is much doubt as to the accuracy of this 
statement. It is most probably an imported Grape. Luglienga Bianca, from 
Italy, as grown at Chiswick, proved similar in every respect, and this is most 
likely the proper name. It was sent out by Messrs. Veitch in 1857. 

CULTURAL NOTES, ETC. At one time this was the most popular of White 
Grapes, and was to be found in every collection. In the great Vinery at Chiswick 
it succeeded extremely well for a good many years, but latterly it has not been 
so satisfactory, seldom setting well, producing a great miny small berries, and 
being of interior quality. It does pretty well grafted on Black Hamburgh. 

GOLDEN QUEEN (51). An oval white Muscat Grape. Season: late; 
keeps well. Merits : second-rate ; scarcely worthy of cultivation. 

VINE. Groivth remarkably strong and of fine vigorous constitution, the shoots 
strong, ripening well ; very fruitful. Leaves large, broad, deeply toothed, thick, 
deep green, with reddish foot-stalks, and remaining long in a fresh green state. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, long, regularly tapering, on very long but 
rather thin stalks ; sets thickly. Berries above medium size, ovate. Skin 
thick, of a pale greenish yellow colour, very often of an ashy paleness, and then 
not at all inviting. Flesh rather soft and squashy, sweetibh, with a faint trace 


of Muscat when well ripened, but generally very deficient in flavour. A very 
handsome Grape when well grown, rivalling in appearance the Muscat of 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a seedling raised by the late Mr. Pearson from 
Alicante, crossed by Ferdinand de Lesseps. It received a First Class Certificate 
from the Eoyal Horticultural Society in 1873. 

GRIZZLY FRONTIGNAN (65). A round, red, or tawny Muscat Grape. 
Season : mid-season. Merits : first-rate in quality, but rather small, 
and so uncertain as to be scarcely worthy of cultivation. 

STN. Muscat Gris, Muscat Rouge, Red Frontignan. 

VINE. Growth moderately strong, free, and ripening freely ; very fruitful. 
Leaves medium sized, deeply toothed, dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, rather long, somewhat cylindrical in shape, 
but occasionally shouldered ; generally well set. Berries below medium size, 
round. Skin thin, membraneous, of a dull red or tawny colour on the side most 
exposed and paler on the shaded side ; generally covered with a thin bloom. Flesh 
very firm, with a very rich, pleasant, and decided musky flavour. When kept 
hanging on the Vine after being ripe, the fruit is very apt to shrivel, but is then 
exceedingly rich and excellent. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is one of the oldest of our English Grapes, having been 
introduced by Sir William Temple in the year 1654, and was formerly cultivated 
in every collection, but is now seldom met with. 

CULTURAL NOTES. The great fault of this Grape has always been its 
tendency to shank. It grows freely, fruits and sets freely, and promises well 
till it approaches maturity, when it almost invariably shanks. Kequires a 
warm Vinery to ripen it thoroughly. 

GROMIER DU CANTAL (35). A round, red, or tawny Sweetwater 
Grape. Season: early. Merits: second-rate; a very distinct charac- 
teristic variety, but scarcely worth cultivation. 

VINE. Growth very robust and strong, shoots gross, but ripening tolerably 
well ; moderately fruitful. Leaves very large, deeply toothed, dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, very broadly shouldered, moderately well set; stalks 
thick and fleshy. Berries large, nearly three inches in circumference, having the 
appearance cf a cross between Black Hamburgh and Sweetwater, round, or nearly 
so, on very stout, fleshy stalks. Skin thin, pale greenish yellow on the shaded 
side, splashed and dotted with dull red and brown and occasionally pink on the 
exposed sides. Flesh thin, very juicy, with a pleasant Sweetwater flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This Grape was sent to the Horticultural Society from Paris, 
and was, about thirty-five years ago, grown in the Society's Gardens at 
Chiswick, and at Trentham about the same period ; but it is not now to be met 
with at either of these places, so far as we are aware. It has somehow become 
confused with De Candolle, from which, however, it is quite distinct, being twice 
as large in the berry, but not producing so large a bunch. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any house that is suitable for Black 
Hamburgh. It is liable to shanking, and so much so at times that the bunches 
are reduced to mere skeletons. 

GROS BLEU. Black Hamburgh. 

GROS COLMAN (79) Plate XIV. A round black Vinous Grape. 
Season : late. Merits : very handsome in appearance, and vain- 


able for late winter and market purposes ; second-rate as to 

SYN. Gros Colmar, Gros Golman, Dodreldbi. 

VINE. Growthhee and vigorous, the shoots stout, with large prominent buds ; 
very fruitful. Leaves large, broad, very downy, often presenting the appearance 
of flagging, and, very early in the season, assuming a rusty appearance, from 
which they change to a dull reddish hue. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, varying from one pound to three pounds or 
sometimes four pounds in weight, rather short and broad, with usually one large 
shoulder, giving the bunch a one-sided appearance ; sets very freely ; stalk long, 
thin, but very tough and strong. Berries round, very large, some examples 
measuring over four inches in circumference. Skin thick, tough, adhering to the 
flesh, jet-black when fully coloured, with a thick coating of bloom. Flesh firm, 
coarse, and geaerally with a very poor and indifferent flavour ; but when highly 
ripened and commencing to shrivel, it is sweet and pleasant. 

HISTORY, ETC. There has been some doubt as to the origin of this Grape. 
The earliest record of it in this country is in the hands of Mr. Kivers, who 
received it from M. Leroy, of Angers. Subsequently, about 1861 or 1862, Mr. 
Standish, of Ascot, exhibited it at South Kensington, where it attracted notice 
from its handsome appearance ; but it was some years later before it attained 
the great popularity it now enjoys, a great measure of which is due to Mr. W. 
Thomson, who was the first to recommend it and to grow it extensively for 
market purposes. As to the name, Gros Golman is that given in Leroy's 
Catalogue in 1860. In the Journal of Horticulture, December, 1878, it is stated 
that "in the Catalogue of Jacquermet-Bonnefont, of Annonay, for 1858, it is 
mentioned by the name of Gros Colmar, and in that of De Bavay for 1852, it is 
called Gros Colman. It can be traced," Dr. Hogg states, "through Germany, 
where it has been for many years known as Gros Kolner, and it is of this 

Horvath, fruited at Chiswick in 1891, and was considered by the Fruit Committee 
to be identical with the Gros Colman. Dodrelabi must therefore be accepted 
as the oldest and the most correct name for this Grape. In Hungary it has been 
known for a long time under the name of " Okorszem," and in Germany as 
" Ocksenauge." "It may be," Herr Horvath remarks, "that the name 
Colman is a corruption of the word Coiner, as stated by Dr. Hogg, but the 
Grosse Coiner Grape, which in German works relating to the Vine is called 
' Blaiie Urbanitraube, ' is not identical with the Gros Colman, but is quite 
distinct. The word Coiner is not derived from the town Coin, but from Kohle, 
in allusion to the splendid bloom on the berries." 

CULTURAL NOTES. Free in growth and fruitful, this is one of the easiest oi 
Grapes to cultivate, and to have in a very presentable condition by ordinary 
treatment ; but to secure good quality it requires a long time to ripen, and a 
considerable amount of heat ; in fact, almost similar treatment to that required 
for Muscats. The enormous size of the berries and great weight of the bunches 
necessitates some care in thinning and not ' overcropping an error of treatment 
which is soon apparent in the want of colour. 

GROS COLMAR. Gros Colman. 
GROS GOULARD. Prolific Sweetwater. 
GROS GOLMAN, Gros Colman. 



(Bunch i ; berries natural size.) 


GROS GUILLAUME (80) Plate XV. A round black Vinous Grape. 
Season : late ; from Christmas to March. Merits : very handsome in 
appearance on account of the size of the bunches ; second-rate in 
quality, excepting when highly ripened. 

SYN. Pennington Hall Hamburgh, Seacli/e Black, etc. 

VINE. Growth very strong and vigorous, rapidly attaining to a great size ; 
rather uncertain as to fruiting, some plants showing abundantly, others scarcely 
at all. Leaves large, dying off early, of a reddish colour. 

FRUIT. Bunches enormously large, two feet and upwards in length, and fully 
more across the shoulders, and weighing from five pounds to ten pounds, and 
sometimes twenty pounds each ; shoulders broad ; very regularly tapering in 
form, compact ; free-setting. Berries medium- sized, round or slightly ovate 
at times. Skin membraneous, of deep black colour, with a fine bloom. Flesh 
tender or moderately so, juicy, but possessing little flavour, excepting when 
highly ripened. 

HISTORY, ETC. The better known designation of this Grape is that of 
Barbarossa, under which name it is to be found in nearly every collection, but 
according to the best authorities, this is incorrect, the true Barbarossa, it is 
stated, being as its name would imply a red or grizzly-coloured Grape. 
Although the true Barbarossa is mentioned in Hogg's Fruit Manual, we have 
never met with it in cultivation. The Gros Guillaume was first prominently 
brought under notice by Messrs. Butcher, of Stratford-on-Avon, about forty 
years ago. It is now in general cultivation, and has several times appeared 
under new names ; while reputed new and improved varieties have frequently 
been submitted. 

CULTURAL NOTES. In regard to fruiting, this is one of the most uncertain of 
Grapes, and much has from time to time been written on the subject. Sometimes 
only a few, frequently only one bunch is produced by a large Vine, and this is 
generally a very large one. In other cases, some Vines will produce bunches 
as freely as the Black Hamburgh. In the large conservatory at Chiswick it 
fruits with remarkable freedom at all times. It succeeds best treated on the 
long-rod system. Some remarkably fine examples of this Grape have been pro- 
duced by grafting on the Black Hamburgh. The largest bunches have been 
those grown by Mr. Roberts, gardener at Charleville Forest, Ireland, one 
exhibited in 1877 weighing twenty-three pounds five ounces. It is best suited 
for a late Grape, and, to ripen it thoroughly well, so as to have it of good quality, 
it should receive nearly as much heat as the Muscats. 

GROS MAROC (72) Plate XVI. An oval black Vinous Grape. 
Season : mid-season. Merits : extremely handsome, the berries being 
covered with a dense dark bloom. 

SYN. Marocain. 

VINE. Growth very strong and robust, the shoots large, but firm and ripening 
freely ; moderately fruitful. Leaves large, deeply serrated. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, strongly shouldered, with stout stalks, 
sets freely. Berries large, ovate in shape, of a very dark plum-colour, 
with a thick bloom. Flesh firm, yet juicy, with a somewhat disagreeable acid 

HISTORY, ETC. Introduced in 1855 by the late Mr. Rivers, from M. Vibert, 
of Angers, this Grape remained comparatively unknown for many years until 
proper attention was directed to its merits by Mr. T. F. Rivers, who obtained 



(Bunch j ; berries natural size.) 


for it a First Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society. It has been 
much confused with the Gros Damas Noir and Black Morocco, from both of 
which it is, however, quite distinct. A variety named Cooper's Black greatly 
resembles Gros Maroc, it' it be not identical. 


(Bunch ^ ; berries natural size.) 

CULTURAL NOTES. This Grape is largely cultivated by Mr. Ward, at Bishop's- 
Stortford, and by Messrs. Rivers, and is much esteemed for its free-fruiting 
properties and fine constitution. It always colours freely and well. ItJLs some- 
what difficult to establish, but, when once it is so, it grows vigorously. 


GROVE-END SWEETWATER (16). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : first early ; one of the earliest Grapes in cultivation. Merits : 
first-class as an early out-door Grape. 

SYN. Early Green Madeira, Early White Malvasia, Early 
Leipsic, Burchardt's Amber Cluster, Early Kienzheim. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, although not robust ; free- fruiting. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, from six inches to eight inches long, loose or straggling ; 
setting freely. Berries small, ovate. Skin thin, very clear and transparent, 
greenish white, becoming amber when fully ripe, and retaining a thin bloom. 
Flesh very tender and juicy, with a remarkably sweet, rich, and pleasant flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This Grape is so named from Grove End, St. John's Wood, 
the residence of William Atkinson, Esq., who imported it and grew it under that 
name, as described in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society in 1821. It 
was subsequently grown at Chiswick, and sent out from there under the name of 
Burchardt's Amber Cluster. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any cool Vinery or orchard-house, and is 
specially well adapted for cultivation on the open wall. 

HAMPTON COURT. Black Hamburgh. 

INGRAM'S HARDY PROLIFIC MUSCAT (37). An oval black Muscat 
Grape. Season : early. Merits : second-rate. 

VINE. Growth somewhat slender, the shoots small, but ripening freely ; 
moderately fruitful. Leaves small, rugose, deeply serrated, with reddish stalks 
and venation. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium -sized, long, tapering, and setting freely. Berries 
medium-sized, of an oval shape. Skin quite black, with a thick blue bloom. 
Flesh firm, moderately juicy, sweet, and pleasant, with a slight trace of Muscat 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a seedling raised in 1857 by the late Mr. Ingram, 
gardener to Her Majesty at Frogmore, and was in much repute for some years as 
a Grape suitable for out-door culture, as having a Muscat flavour. It is not now 
cultivated to any extent. 

CULTURAL NOTES, ETC. Free growing, and fruits readily in any ordinary 
Vinery or greenhouse. 

JOHN DOWNIE. Alnwick Seedling. 
JOSLING'S ST. ALBANS. Chasselas Musque. 
JULY. Black July. 

JULY FRONTIGNAN (44). A round black Muscat Grape. Season: 
first early Merits : first-class as an out-door Grape. 
SYN. Muscat de Juillet. 

VINE. Growth free and vigorous, producing small but well-ripened shoots ; 
fruits freely. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, compact, and setting freely. Berries small and round. 
Skin dark purple, with a thick bloom. Flesh very juicy, sweet and pleasant, 
with a slight Muscnt flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Introduced by the late Mr. Rivers. 



CULTURAL NOTES. Very suitable for cultivation on the open wall, as it ripens 
early and is of good constitution. 

(Bunch i ; berries natural size.) 

KISH MISH ALL Black Hamburgh. 



LADY DOWNE'S SEEDLING (81) Plate XVII. Around, black Vinous 
Grape. Season : late. Merits : first-rate ; specially valuable for late 
winter use. 

VINE. Growth strong and robust, the wood ripening freely, the ripened shoots 
frequently downy ; very free fruiting ; late in commencing growth. Leaves 
roundish, deeply toothed, downy, dying off reddish, or sometimes yellow, the 
leaf-stalks very downy, and with a tinge of red. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, from eight to twelve inches, tapering, with generally 
one large irregular shoulder; closely and freely set, fig. "56, p. 195. Berries 
large, roundish, or sometimes ovate, frequently with a distinct suture across the 
apex, showing the form of the seeds. Skin thick, tough, and leathery, deep 
purplish black when properly coloured with a thick bloom, but frequently 
reddish purple near to the stalk. Flesh dull green in colour, thick, and firm, 
with a somewhat harsh, acid flavour, excepting when well ripened, when it 
becomes brisk or sparkling, sweet, and rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. This truly excellent and popular Grape was long in having 
its merits recognised. It was raised by Mr. Foster, gardener to Viscount 
Downe, Beningborough Hall, York, about the year 1835, and was first exhibited 
before the Horticultural Society in 1845. Eight years after this, viz., in 1853, 
it was sent out by Messrs. Backhouse, of York ; but it was still many years 
before its great merits were fully recognised, as one of the best late-keeping 
Grapes. In 1858, the following interesting letter appeared in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle, p. 70, from Mr. Saul, giving the history of this Grape, as received 
from Mr. Foster. " Lady Downe's Seedling Grape was raised from the Black 
Morocco, crossed by the Sweetwater, twenty-three years ago. The most singular 
thing was that from the same seeds there should have been two varieties a 
black Grape and a white (this was subsequently named Foster's Seedling). The 
bunch of Grapes these were raised from, Lady Downe had for her lunch, and 
after eating the Grapes, she sent to the gardens for a pot of mould to sow the 
seed in. After the plants were up, and the seed-leaves expanded, they were 
handed over to me to take charge of them. I don't know whether I ought 
to claim the credit of raising it or not. The crossing of the varieties was my 
doing. " 

CULTURAL NOTES. This very valuable Grape is of easy cultivation ; it will 
grow and ripen its fruit in any ordinary Vinery, but a rather high temperature 
is required to set the berries properly. It forces well but requires considerable 
time to develop its proper flavour. The berries at certain stages are very liable 
to scalding, and the young shoots to burning on bright mornings in a close 
atmosphere. The fruit keeps well, and will hang fresh on the Vine until 

LADY HUTT ( 1 8). A round white Sweetwater Grape. Season ; mid- 
season. Merits : first-class quality, and rather handsome. 

VINE. Growth moderately robust, shoots ripening freely. Leaves large, not 
much lobed, die off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches below medium size, rather short, well and freely set. Berries 
medium size, roundish. Skin thin, clear pale yellow, rather pretty. Flesh 
firm, juicy, with an exceedingly pleasant rich Sweetwater flavour. 

HISTORY. Raised by Mr. Myles, gardener to Lady Hutt, Appley Towers, 
Byde, from Gros Colrnan crossed by Alicante. First Class Certificate, Royal 
Horticultural Society, 1890. 

LE CCEUR. Black Morocco. 


LE MUNIER. Miller's Burgundy. 

LIERVAL'S FRONTIGNAN. Muscat de Lierval. 

LOMBARDY (36). A round, red, or grizzly Sweetwater Grape. 
Season: mid-season, or rather late. Merits: second-rate. 

SYN. Flame-coloured Tokay \ Red Rhenish, Wantage. 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous, but not very free-fruiting. Leaves large. 

FRUIT. Bunches very large, from twelve to twenty inches in length, broadly 
shouldered, very regular in form, somewhat loosely but well set, very handsome. 
Berries medium-sized, roundish. Skin pale red or grizzly. Flesh pale, moder- 
ately firm, sweet, but not rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. This Grape is of Continental origin. It was, however, singu- 
larly originated in this country also, having been raised from the seed of a dried 
raisin, and grown on the end of a cottage at Wantage, whence it was received 
by Mr. Wilmot, of Isleworth, and exhibited before the Horticultural Society in 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any ordinary Vinery. 

LONG Nora D'ESPAGNE. Treiitham Black. 
LUGLIENGA BIANCA. Golden Hamburgh. 

MADEIRA FRONTIGNAN (66). A round, red, or grizzly Muscat 

Grape. Season : early. Merits : excellent in quality. 

SYN. Muscat Rouge de Madere, Muscat Noir de Madere. 

VINE. Moderately free and vigorous in growth, shoots always ripening freely, 
very prolific or fruitful. Leaves small, roundish. 

FRUIT. Bunches small or below medium size, compact ; closely and well set. 
Berries medium-sized, round. Skin thick, reddish purple or grizzly. Flesh firm, 
yet juicy and very rich, having a very decided Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Imported from France some years since by Messrs. Kivers 
and the Royal Horticultural Society. Fruited at Chiswick, but is not often to 
be met with. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any house suitable for the Black Ham- 
burgh, and ripens about the same time. 

MADELEINE ROYALE (19). An oval white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early ; ripening in advance of the Black Hamburgh. Merits : 
second quality, but worthy of culture as a free-fruiting early Grape. 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous, very similar to that of the Black Ham- 
burgh, the shoots strong, ripening freely ; very fruitful. Leaves similar to those 
of the Black Hamburgh. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, rather short, but broadly and stoutly 
shouldered, well set. Berries medium -sized, ovate. Skin thin, almost trans- 
parent, whitish or pale green, somewhat liable to crack about the ripening 
period. Flesh thin, pale, briskly sweet and pleasant, but not rich. It somewhat 
resembles in appearance Foster's White Seedling but ripens earlier, and is not 
quite o large as that variety. A pretty Grape. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received by the Royal Horticultural Society from M. Leroy, 
Angers. Has been grown at Chiswick for many years in an unheated orchard- 



(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 


CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds well in any ordinary Vinery, and will ripen in 
a cool greenhouse ; but in cold or damp weaiher, the skin being thin and tender, 
it is liable to crack and decay. 

MADRESFIELD COURT (38). Plate XVIII. An oval black Muscat 
Grape. Season : early. Merits : first-class, excellent in quality, and 
very handsome. 

YINE. Moderately strong in growth, very free, the shoots always ripening 
freely, producing prominent dark brown buds, and generally covered with a thin 
coating of down ; very fruitful. Leaves meiium-sized, rugose, deep green, 
sharply or deeply lobed ; leaf-stalks and venations reddish. The leaves die off 
crimson, and are very beautiful. 

FRUIT. Bunches above medium size, long, very regularly tapering, the point 
often forked ; shoulders generally small, stalk stout ; weight averaging from two 
to four pounds ; always freely and well set. Berries large, sometimes very large, 
of a long ovate shape, on stout foot-stalks, very regular. Skin tough and mem- 
braneous, of a dark purplish shade generally, seldom quite black, and covered 
with a very dense blue bloom, like some varieties of Plums. Flesh thick, 
greenish, very tender, sweet and rich ; generally, but not always, with a very 
distinct Muscat flavour. Extremely handsome. 

HISTORY, ETC. A hybrid, raised by the late Mr. Cox, gardener to Earl 
Beauchamp, at Madrestield Court, "Worcestershire, by crossing Muscat of 
Alexandria with the Black Morocco. It was awarded a Certificate by the Royal 
Horticultural Society in 1868, and was subsequently sent out by Messrs. Lee, 

CULTURAL NOTES. Remarkably easy of cultivation, possessing a fine free 
constitution. Being at first recommended as a late Grape, many failed in its 
cultivation by giving it too much heat ; whereas it is actually an early Grape, is 
best suited for early work, and requires less heat than the Black Hamburgh. In 
some places it has succeeded remarkably well in a cool orchard-house. If allowed 
to hang long, the berries are somewhat liable to crack. The finest examples we 
have seen were grown by Mr. Roberts, late of Gunnersbury. It is now being 
largely grown as an early Grape for the London Market. 

MAJOR MORAY'S. West's St. Peter's. 
MAROCAIN. Gros Maroc. 

MEURTHE FRONTIGNAN (46). A round black Muscat Grape. Season: 
mid-season or general crop. Merits : quality excellent ; one of the 
best of its class. 

SYN. Muscat Noir de Meurthe. 

VINE. Growth moderately vigorous, the shoots ripening freely ; free -fruiting. 
Leaves small, rounded, not deeply lobed, but deeply toothed ; dying off reddish. 

FRUIT. Bundles medium-sized, cylindrical, sometimes slightly shouldered, 
very close and compact, well set. Berries round, medium-sized, larger than 
those of the Black Frontignan, on short, thick, fleshy stalks. Skin purplish 
black, covered with a heavy bloom, and with a very prominent style-point. 
Flesh firm, crackling, rich, brisk and juicy, with a very distinct Muscat flavour. 



(Bunches ; berries natural size.) 


HISTORY, ETC. Grown in the collection of the Royal Horticultural Society at 
Chiswick, having been received from M. Leroy, of Angers. 
CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed under ordinary treatment, or in a cool house. 

MILLER GRAPE. Miller's Burgundy. 

MILLER'S BURGUNDY (9). A round black Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : very hardy ; excellent for the open wall. 

SYN. Farineux noir, Le Munier, Miller Grape. 

VINE. Growth strong and vigorous, the young shoots ripening freely ; very 
fruitful, producing three to four bunches on each shoot. Leaves thick and 
leathery, very downy, almost white ; hence called the Miller Grape. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, short, compact, very thickly and freely set. Berries 
small, roundish. Skin thin, purplish black, covered with a fine bloom. Flesh 
dark, juicy, with a sweet pleasant flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. One of the very oldest of Grapes cultivated in this country ; 
found by Sir Joseph Banks in the remains of an ancient Vineyard at Tortworth, 
Gloucestershire. Figured in the Pomological Magazine, II., p. 56, and still to 
be met with against walls and cottages as an out-door Vine. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Suitable for planting against a warm wall, where, in good 
seasons, it ripens freely. 

MiLL-HiLL HAMBURGH (10). A round black Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : general crop ; not adapted for early forcing, or for late 
keeping. Merits: first-class quality. 

SYN. Champion Hamburgh, Black Champion. 

VINE. Growth very strong, almost gross, the young shoots soft and thick, and 
frequently not ripening well, so that the Vine often becomes bare of shoots ; shy 
fruiting ; Leaves very large, pale green, and very early assuming a flaccid, sickly 
yellow appearance, as if in bad health ; this being a very distinctive characteristic. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, never very large, broadly shouldered, the 
stalks very thick and fleshy ; rather thinly and often indifferently set. Berries 
very large, quite round. Skin thin, almost transparent, reddish black, seldom 
quite black, with a thin bloom. Flesh very tender, melting, juicy, sweet, rich, 
and pleasantly flavoured ; superior to the Black Hamburgh. 

HISTORY, ETC. -We have failed to trace the direct origin, or history of this 
noble Grape. It has been in cultivation in various gardens for many years, and 
is con fused with the coarse hard-fleshed Dutch Hamburgh, the one very frequently 
passing for the other. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Eequi res much the same treatment as the Black 
Hamburgh in regard to temperature, etc., but fruits best when pruued on the 
long-rod system. The skin being very thin, the berries do not keep long after 
becoming ripe. 

MRS. PEARSON (61) Plate XIX. A round white Muscat Grape. 
Season : late late in ripening, keeps well. Merits : quality first- 

VINE. Very strong and vigorous in growth, the wood ripening freely ; 
fruitful. Leaves medium-sized, thick, and leathery, deeply-lobed and toothed, 
with reddish petioles and venation. 



(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 


FRUIT. Bunches above medium size, with large shoulders, tapering, on very 
strong foot-stalks ; freely set. Berries roundish, or nearly so. Skin thick, 
leathery, deep green, assuming .in amber tinge when quite ripe. Flesh thick or 
firm, juicy, sweet, and with a pleasant strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised by Mr. Pearson from Black Alicante crossed with 
Ferdinand de Lesseps, and awarded a First Class Certificate by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society in 1874. It is not so much cultivated as it really deserves. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires as much heat and time to ripen as the Muscat 
of Alexandria. Should be grown in a warm Vinery. 

MRS. PINCE (40) Plate XX. An oval black Muscat Grape. 
.Season : late. Merits : first-class, especially valuable for late use. 

SYN. Mrs. Pince's Black Muscat. 

VINE. Growth very strong and vigorous, the shoots ripening freely ; moder- 
ately fruitful. Leaves strong and leathery, very rugose, with reddish stalks and 
venation, and covered with down. 

FRUIT. Bunches generally very large, long, tapering, and often terminating 
in a broad forked or tasciated point ; compact, requires care in setting. Berries 
medium-sized, long ovate, on very stout warted foot-stalks, Skin tough, thick, 
deep purplish black, with a very thick blue bloom. Flesh firm, crackling, very 
rich and sweet, having a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. The seed of this Grape was sown by the late Mrs. Pince, of 
the Exeter Nurseries, shoitly before her death. The Vine fruited in 1863, and 
was awarded a First Class Certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society. It is 
now pretty generally cultivated, more especially, perhaps, in the south-western 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires treatment very similar to that of the Muscat of 
Alexandria. It takes a considerable time to ripen thoroughly, but will keep 
long in good condition, and with less care than most other Grapes. 

MONEY'S WEST'S ST. PETER'S. West's St. Peter's. 
MOROCCO. Black Morocco. 

MOROCCO PRINCE (73). An oval black Vinous Grape. Season: 
late. Merits : second-rate ; valuable on account of its keeping 

VINE. Growth very strong and vigorous, the shoots ripening freely ; moder- 
ately fruitful. Leaves medium-sized, deeply toothed, rugose, with reddish stalks 
and venation. 

FRUIT. Bunches of medium size, on long, strong foot-stalks, with strong 
shoulders ; setting freely. Berries medium-sized, short ovate, on strong 
stalks. Skin thin, membraneous, generally of a purplish red colour, but some- 
times black, and with a thin bloom. Flesh firm, juicy, sweet, with a very brisk, 
sparkling vinous flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received by the Royal Horticultural Society about thirty- 
five years ago, as a seedling between Black Prince and Black Morocco, hence 
called Morocco Prince. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds under the same treatment as the Black 

MUSCAT OF ALEXANDRIA (52) Plate XXI. An oval white Muscat 
Grape. Season : late ; will keep in good condition long after 



. v. A^ 




(Bunch i ; berries natural size.) 


ripening. Merits : first-class ; the most handsome and valuable Grape 
in cultivation. 

SYN. Archer-field Early Muscat, Charlesworth Tokay, Cabas 
(JL la Heine, Muscat Escholata, Bowood Muscat, Lunel Muscat, Muscat 
Eomain, Passe Muscat, Tottenham Park Muscat, Tyninghaine Muscat, 

VINE. Strong and robust in growth, and of a vigorous, healthy constitution, 
the young shoots moderately strong ; very free-fruiting. Leaves of medium size, 
deeply lobed, somewhat rugose, commencing early to decay, and becoming yellow 
round the edges ; the leaf-stalks and venation reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches very long, from twelve to twenty inches, tapering, and often 
strongly shouldered ; weight from two pounds to four pounds, and frequently 
six pounds ; a somewhat shy setter. Berries very large, long ovate, on stout 
stalks. Skin rather thick, clear greenish yellow, or when highly ripened pale 
amber, and sometimes with a flush of cinnamon where much exposed ; very 
handsome. Flesh firm, crackling or fleshy, exceedingly sweet, rich, and with a 
strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. One of the oldest and still the very best of Grapes, and one 
common to almost every garden. The number of synonyms applied to this 
Grape, and the number of new, early, hardy, and so-called improved varieties 
that have been introduced are, perhaps, greater than in the case of any other 
variety. In the north of England, it used very commonly to be called Charles- 
worth Tokay. For many years Bowood Muscat was considered a greatly-improved 
variety, and Muscat Escholata had the reputation of being much larger ; but a 
complete test of all these reputed varieties being made at Chiswick, the only 
other distinct variety was the Canon Hall Muscat. One of the largest 
Vines existing is that at Harewood House, Leeds, which was planted by 
Mr. Chapman in 1783, and completely fills a house sixty feet long by eighteen 
feet wide, and bears an average crop of three hundred bunches. 

CULTURAL NOTES. No Grape better rewards special culture than this. It is 
seldom found to succeed well in a mixed collection. Although the Vine is quite 
hardy, and fruits freely in the open air, it is found to require a warmer tempera- 
ture and drier atmosphere than most other varieties to set the berries properly. 
Thus special care is required in setting, and a higher temperature is also requisite 
to ripen the fruit thoroughly. Unlike Black Grapes, the Muscat of Alexandria is 
much benefited by having the fruit exposed to the direct influence of the sun. 

MUSCAT D'AotJT. August Frontignan. 

MUSCAT BIFERE (54). An oval, white Muscat Grape. Season: 
early. Merits : second-rate. 

VINE. Moderately robust in growth, and with a good constitution ; fruits 
freely. Leaves medium-sized, roundish. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, tapering, with broad shoulders ; freely set. Berries 
medium-sized, roundish oval. Skin clear, pale greenish yellow. Flesh firm, 
juicy, sweet, and with a very decided Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Andre Leroy, of Angers, and fruited at 

CULTURAL NOTES. "Will succeed in any ordinary Vinery. 

MUSCAT BLANC. White Frontignan. 



(Bunch ^ ; berries natural size.) 


ripening. Merits : first-class ; the most handsome and valuable Grape 
in cultivation. 

SYN. Archerfteld Early Muscat, Charlesworth Tokay, Cabas 
a la Heine, Muscat Escholata, Bowood Muscat, Lunel Muscat, Muscat 
Eomain, Passe Muscat, Tottenham Park Muscat, Tyninghame Muscat, 

YINE. Strong and robust in growth, and of a vigorous, healthy constitution, 
the young shoots moderately strong ; very free-fruiting. Leaves of medium size, 
deeply lobed, somewhat rugose, commencing early to decay, and becoming yellow 
round the edges ; the leaf-stalks and venation reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches very long, from twelve to twenty inches, tapering, and often 
strongly shouldered ; weight from two pounds to four pounds, and frequently 
six pounds ; a somewhat shy setter. Berries very large, long ovate, on stout 
stalks. Skin rather thick, clear greenish yellow, or when highly ripened pale 
amber, and sometimes with a flush of cinnamon where much exposed ; very 
handsome. Flesh firm, crackling or fleshy, exceedingly sweet, rich, and with a 
strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. One of the oldest and still the very best of Grapes, and one 
common to almost every garden. The number of synonyms applied to this 
Grape, and the number of new, early, hardy, and so-called improved varieties 
that have been introduced are, perhaps, greater than in the case of any other 
variety. In the north of England, it used very commonly to be called Charles- 
worth Tokay. For many years Bowood Muscat was considered a greatly-improved 
variety, and Muscat Escholata had the reputation of being much larger ; but a 
complete test of all these reputed varieties being made at Chiswick, the only 
other distinct variety was the Canon Hall Muscat. One of the largest 
Vines existing is that at Harewood House, Leeds, which was planted by 
Mr. Chapman in 1783, and completely fills a house sixty feet long by eighteen 
feet wide, and bears an average crop of three hundred bunches. 

CULTURAL NOTES. No Grape better rewards special culture than this. It is 
seldom found to succeed well in a mixed collection. Although the Vine is quite 
hardy, and fruits freely in the open air, it is found to require a warmer tempera- 
ture and drier atmosphere than most other varieties to set the berries properly. 
Thus special care is required in setting, and a higher temperature is also requisite 
to ripen the fruit thoroughly. Unlike Black Grapes, the Muscat of Alexandria is 
much benefited by having the fruit exposed to the direct influence of the sun. 

MUSCAT D'AOUT. August Frontignan. 

MUSCAT BIFERE (54). An oval, white Muscat Grape. Season : 
early. Merits : second-rate. 

VINE. Moderately robust in growth, and with a good constitution ; fruits 
freely. Leaves medium-sized, roundish. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, tapering, with broad shoulders ; freely set. Berries 
medium-sized, roundish oval. Skin clear, pale greenish yellow. Flesh firm, 
juicy, sweet, and with a very decided Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Andre Leroy, of Angers, and fruited at 

CULTURAL NOTES. "Will succeed in any ordinary Vinery. 

MUSCAT BLANC. White Frontignan. 


MUSCAT CHAMPION (67). A round, red, or grizzly Muscat Grape. 
Season : mid-season ; will not keep long after being ripe. Merits : 
first-class in quality, and very handsome. 

SYN. Champion Hamburgh Muscat. 

VINE. Growth somewhat gross, the shoots often ripening badly, like those of 
the Mill Hill Hamburgh ; shy-fruiting. Leaves large, deeply serrated, flabby, 
dying oft yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, broadly shouldered, on gross fleshy stalks ; 
an imperfect setter, many of the berries, although attaining a fair size, having 
no seeds. Berries very large, round. Skin thin, tender, of a dark reddish or 
grizzly colour, seldom black. Flesh melting, very juicy, rich and sweet, with 
a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Kaised by Mr. Melville, gardener to the Earl of Rosebery, at 
Dalmeny Park, Edinburgh, about the year 1858, by crossing Mill Hill Ham- 
burgh with Canon Hall Muscat, possesses the characteristics of both parents. 
It was sent out by Messrs. Veitch & Sons. 

CULTURAL NOTES. A somewhat difficult Grape to cultivate, being slow in 
commencing to grow, and producing gross, badly-ripened wood. At Sandring- 
ham, Mr. Carinichael was particularly successful in its cultivation ; and Mr. 
Harrison Weir grew it with great success in his low ground-vineries at 
Brenchley, Kent. 

MUSCAT ESCHOLATA. Muscat of Alexandria. 
MUSCAT EUGENIEN. Auvergne Frontignan. 
MUSCAT FLEUR D'ORANGER. Chasselas Musque. 
MUSCAT GRIS. Grizzly Frontignan. 

MUSCAT OF HUNGARY (53). An oval white Muscat Grape. 
Season : mid-season. Merits : first-class in quality. 

g yN . Muscat Daroczy, Muscat de I'Archiduc Jean, Peczi szagos, 


y INE . Growth moderately strong, ripening freely, having a fine vigorous 
constitution, fruitful. Leaves resembling Muscat of Alexandria, dying oft" 

FRUIT. Bunches of small size, always well set. Berries below medium 
size, ovate. Skin thin, pale greenish yellow. Flesh firm, yet juicy, with a 
very pronounced and exceedingly pleasant Muscat flavour. We have received 
fruit of this sort from Herr Horvaih, of Fiint'kirchen, Hungary, who states 
that it is the best and latest keeping table Grape grown in Hungary, letaiuing 
its Muscat flavour longer than the Muscat of Alexandria. Grown at Chiswick, 
this has proved to be the very richest of Muscat Grapes, and hangs remarkably 
long in fresh condition. 

HISTORY, ETC Herr Horvath says that this Grape has been grown in the 
mountains of Funfkirchen for many years and from thence distributed. It is best 
kuo*n there under the name of Peczi szagos, Peczi being Hungarian for 
Funt'kiivhen, and tzagos s-ignifying "sweet-scented." It is erroneously called 
Muscat of Alexandria. The Director of the School of Vine-culture there calls 
it the Small-berried Muscat of Alexandria. In Marburg it is often called Muscat 
Da.mi teener, which is incorrect, this being the German name for the Muscat of 
Alexandria. It is sometimes called Muscat Daroczy, in compliment to M. Uaroczy, 


who distributed it largely ; and it has also been called Erzherzog Johanntraube 
by a Styrian grower named Trummer, who got it mixed with other sorts, this 
latter name being translated by the French into Muscat de VArchiduc Jean, and 
by the Italians into Moscato del Archiduca Giovanni. In spite of the many 
names it possesses this sort is almost unknown out of Hungary, which, considering 
its high reputation, is somewhat singular. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Being of good hardy constitution will succeed under the 
ordinary treatment required for the Black Hamburgh. 

MUSCAT GBIS. Grizzly Frontignan. 

MUSCAT HAMBURGH (39) Plate XXII. An oval black Muscat 
Grape. Season : mid-season ; does not keep long in good condition 
after becoming ripe. Mtrits : first-class in quality and appearance, 
but somewhat delicate. 

SYN. Black Muscat of Alexandria, Red Muscat of Alexandria, 
Snow's Muscat Hamburgh, Venn's Seedling Black Muscat. 

VINE. Growth moderately vigorous; free-fruiting. Leaves large, deeply 
lobed and serrated ; dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, with long somewhat loose shoulders ; very frequently 
badly set, the bunch containing a number of half-developed berries, berries 
large, above medium size, ovate. Skin thin, dark purplish, with a fine bloom. 
Flesh melting, very juicy, rich, sweet, and with a fine Muscat flavour, but not so 
pronounced as in the White Muscat of Alexandria. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a very old Grape, having been grown for many years 
under the name of Slack Muscat of Alexandria ; but was almost lost until intro- 
duced to notice by the late Mr. Snow, of "Wrest Park, about thirty-five years 
ago, as Snow's Muscat Hamburgh. It is now generally cultivated. Venn's 
Seedling, which is a reputed seedling raised by Mr. Venn, near Bristol, about 
1870, is said to be of better constitution, etc., but after having grown them both 
we have not been able to detect any difference. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Although of free growth, this Grape is found some- 
what difficult of cultivation through its tendency to shank. Various means have 
been advocated and adopted to obviate this evil, such as growing it in a warm 
border, and grafting on various stocks, several nurserymen keeping plants of it 
worked on the Black Hamburgh, which for a time seemed to suit it well. A Vine 
of this variety grafted at Chiswick on a late coarse Spanish Grape, is so altered 
thereby, that very little trace of Muscat is apparent. To succeed thoroughly 
with this fine Grape, it should be grown in a warm Vinery. 

MUSCAT DE JESUS. Chasselas Musqu. 
MUSCAT DE JUILLET. July Frontignan. 

MUSCAT DE LIERVAL (45). A round black Muscat Grape. Season: 
first early. Merits : third-rate. 

SYN. LiervaVs Frontignan. 

VINE. Growth free, but slender ; very fruitful. Leaves small, round, dying 
off reddish. 

FRUIT, Bunches small, short, compact, remarkably well set. Berries small, 
round. Skin rather thick, black, with a fine bloom. Flesh juicy, sweet, and 
with a very pleasant Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Leroy, of Angers, and grown at Chiswick. 



CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds well in good seasons on the open wall ; suitable 
for orchard-house cultivation. 

MUSCAT LUNEL. Muscat of Alexandria. 

(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

MUSCAT MUSCADINE. Chasselas Musque. 
MUSCAT NOIR. Black Frontignan. 


Nora D'ANGERS. Angers Frontignan. 
MUSCAT Nora DE MAD ERE. Madeira Frontignan. 
MUSCAT Nora DE MEURTHE. Meurthe Frontignan. 
MUSCAT Nora ORDINAIRE. Black Frontignan. 
MUSCAT Nora DES PYRENEES. Angers Frontignan. 
MUSCAT Nora TARDIF. Angers Frontignan. 
MUSCAT PRIMAVIS. Chasselas Musque. 
MUSCAT DU PUT DE DOME. Auvergne Frontignan. 
MUSCAT QUADRAT. See White Frontignan 
MUSCAT REGNIER. Chasselas Musque. 
MUSCAT ROMAIN. Muscat of Alexandria. 
MUSCAT ROUGE. Grizzly Frontignan. 
MUSCAT ROUGE DE MADERE. Madeira Frontignan. 
MUSCAT DE SARBELLE. Sarbelle Frontignan. 
MUSCAT TROYEREN. Troveren Frontignan. 
MUSCATELLIER Nora. Black Hamburgh. 

CEILLADE NOIRE (4). An oval, black Sweetwater Grape. Season : 
mid-season. Merits : second-rate. 

SYN. Mihaud du Pradel, Malvoisie Noire, CEillade Noire Musquee, 
(Eillade Noire Precoce. 

YINE. Growth moderately robust ; moderately fruitful. Leaves medium size, 
deeply cut, dying off reddish, when they have a pretty appearance. 

FRUIT. Bunches above medium size, on long stalks, very loose, and with long 
loose shoulders ; sets freely. Berries above medium size, long ovate. Skin thick, 
jet black, with a fine bloom, bearing a great resemblance to the Muscat Ham- 
burgh. Flesh melting, juicy, with a sweet and exceedingly pleasant flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Leroy, of Angers, and grown in the collec- 
tion of the Royal Horticultural Society at Chiswick, and from thence distributed. 

CULTURAL NOTES. It will succeed under the treatment given in an ordinary 

OLDAKER'S WEST'S ST. PETER'S. West's St. Peter's. 

OTTONEL (62). A round, white Muscat Grape. Season : first early. 
Merits : third-rate, but valuable on account of its earliness and hardi- 

SYN. Muscat Ottonel. 

VINE. Growth slender, but free ; very fruitful. Leaves small, roundish, 
dying off pale yellow early. 


FRUIT. Bunches small, short, , cylindrical ; well set. Berries small, round. 
Skin thick, greenish yellow. Flesh peculiarly dry, yet tender and very sweet, 
with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Leroy, of Angers, and fruited at Chiswick. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Excellent for pot-culture in orchard- houses, and ripens- 
freely on the open wall in ordinary seasons. 


PATRAS CURRANT. Black Corinth. 


PASSE MUSCAT. Muscat of Hamburgh. 



POPE'S HAMBURGH. Black Hamburgh. 

PRIMAVIS MUSCAT. Chasselas Musque. 

PROLIFIC SWEETWATER (28). A round white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : first-class . A great improvement on the* 
old Sweetwater, sets more freely. 

SYN. Gros Coulard. 

VINE. Growth moderately robust, with fine, free constitution ; fruitful. 
Leaves roundish, much toothed, dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, somewhat loose and irregular, thinly set. Berries 
medium-sized, round. Skin very clear and transparent, greenish white. Flesh 
very tender, juicy, rich, and pleasant. 

HISTORY, ETC. Our first acquaintance with this Grape was in the collection 
of Messrs. Rivers. It has also fruited at Chiswick. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Excellent for pot-culture, and succeeds well in a cool 

QUEEN VICTORIA. Royal Muscadine. 

KAISIN DE CALABRE (88) Plate XXIII. A round white Vinous- 
Grape. Season : late, will hang fresh until March. Merits : third- 
rate in quality, but keeps remarkably well. 

SYN. Caldbrian Raisin. 

VINE. Growth very free and vigorous, with fine constitution, the young 
shoots being moderately strong, somewhat long-jointed, and with clean, pale 
bark ; very fruitful. Leaves medium size, rather deeply toothed, dying off a 
very pale yellow and falling very early. 

FRUIT. Bunches from twelve to twenty inches long, somewhat loose, tapering, 
on long woody stalks, slightly shouldered. Berries medium size, quite round, 
freely set, but never crowded, on very strong foot-stalks, which, on pulling the 
berry off, retain a portion of the flesh. Skin whitish, almost transparent, 
showing the seeds through. Flesh thick and firm, with a sweet but by no- 
means a rich flavour. 



HISTORY, ETC. Received by the Horticultural Society from Messrs. Baumann, 
of Bolwyller, and described by Thompson in the Journal of the Society in 1846. 
It is still grown in the great Grape Conservatory at Chiswick, but is not 

(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 

generally to be met with in gardens. In some parts of the country, the name of 
Raisin de Calabre has got applied to the Trebbiano ; and the large bunches 
grown by Mr. Curror, of Eskbank, under that name were, in reality Trebbiano. 
the berries of which are slightly ovate. 


CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any ordinary Vinery, and requires {no 
special care. Best suited for late house, the berries keeping remarkably plump 
and fresh until late in spring. 

RAISIN DE CORANCE. Black Corinth. 

(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

RED CHASSELAS. Chasselas Rose. 
RED FRONTIGNAN. Grizzly Frontignan. 


RED HAMBURGH. Black Hamburgh. 


RED RHENISH. Lombardy. 

ROYAL ASCOT (74) Plate XXIY. An oval black Vinous Grape. 
Season : mid-season. Merits : second-rate in quality ; handsome in 
berry, but too small in the bunch. 

VINE. Growth robust and vigorous, with a fine free constitution ; very 
fruitful, frequently producing three or four bunches on one shoot, and also, 
occasionally producing other bunches on the young laterals, which peculiarity 
induced the raiser to designate it a " perpetual " bearer. Leaves large, roundish, 
deeply toothed, dying off reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, rarely exceeding half-a-pound in weight, short, broad, 
frequently forked, or with one large shoulder ; very closely set, requiring early 
thinning. Berries large, roundish-ovate, with stout stalks. Skin very thick, 
purplish black, with a heavy bloom ; commences to colour very early, and 
becomes black a long time before being ripe. Flesh very firm, with a strong, 
piquant, plum-like flavour, becoming rich when thoroughly ripe. 

HISTORY, ETC. This was raised by the late Mr. John Standish, of Ascot, 
from a cross between Bo wood Muscat and Muscat Troveren, and received a First 
Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Succeeds well and fruits freely in any ordinary Vinery, 
but requires a long time to ripen thoroughly. Is extremely well suited for 

ROYAL MUSCADINE (29) Plate XXV. A round white Sweetwater 
Grape. Season : early. Merits : first-class as to quality, and also as 
an early free-fruiting out-door Grape; it will also keep in good 
condition long after becoming ripe. 

SYN. Amber Muscadine, Common Muscadine, White Chasselas, 
Ohasselas de Fontainebleau, Chasselas Hdtif de Teneri/e, Golden 
Bordeaux, Queen Victoria, White Muscadine, White Sweetwater, etc. 

VINE. Growth very free and vigorous, with a fine constitution, the young 
shoots slender, but ripening freely, the bark dark reddish brown ; extremely 
fruitful. Leaves small, roundish, slightly lobed, dying off early of a pale yellow 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized or small, long, tapering, broadly shouldered, 
and somewhat loose ; freely set. Berries small, round, pale greenish yellow, 
becoming transparent when fully ripe, or if exposed to bright sun, the one side 
becoming of a bright cinnamon-russet, in which condition they are very much 
richer and sweeter. Flesh firm, yet tender, juicy, sweet, and extremely agreeable 
to the palate. When kept until they begin to shrivel, they are extremely rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a well-known Grape, which has been long grown in 
this country, frequently as the White Sweetwater; indeed, being the better 
Grape of the two, it is fast superseding that variety. It is the same as the 
Chasselas de Fontainebleau of the French, or the White Chasselas, so common 
in the Paris restaurants. Figured in the Pomological Magazine, /., p. 18, under 
the name of Common Muscadine, but Langley and others say that these are 
distinct varieties. 

CULTURAL NOTES. The best Grape for cultivation in the open air against 
walls in this country. In the southern counties, in favourable seasons, it ripens 



freely and well. Good for pot-culture, and for growing in an ordinary Vinery, 
where it ripens a fortnight before the Black Hamburgh, 

ROYAL VINEYARD (82). An oval white Vinous Grape. Season : 
late ; hangs and keeps remarkably well. Merits : third-class. 

(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

very strong and robust ; moderately fruitful. Leaves large, 
dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, long, tapering, but irregular, loosely shouldered; 
generally sets badly. Berries medium, roundish ovate. Skin thin, membraneous, 
clear and transparent, adhering somewhat to the flesh. Flesh firm, dull 
greenish, moderately juicy, with an agreeable, sweetish flavour ; and, when 
highly ripened, partaking slightly of the Muscat. 

HISTORY, ETC. Introduced by Messrs. Parker and "Williams, about 1860, and 
received a First Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society. Not 
much cultivated. 


CULTURAL NOTES. This Grape requires to be grown in a warm Muscat 
house ; a little extra care is necessary for the setting of the berries. 

ST. LAURENT (55). An oval white Muscat Grape. Season : first 
early. Merits : first-rate in quality ; one of the best of the small 
Muscat Grapes. 

SYN. Muscat St. Laurent. 

VINE. Growth moderately strong ; very fruitful. Leaves small, roundish, 
slightly serrated. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, very compact, very closely and freely set. Berries 
small, roundish oval. Skin very thin, of a pale amber-yellow colour. Flesh 
tender, very juicy, sweet, and pleasant, with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from Messrs. Rivers, and fruited at Chiswick. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Well adapted for culture in pots, being extremely 
fruitful ; it ripens in good seasons on the open wall. 

ST. PETER'S. Alicante. 

SARBELLE FRONTIGNAN (47). A round black Muscat Grape. 
Season : early. Merits : of excellent quality, but too small in bunch 
and berry. 

SYN. Muscat de Sarlelle. 

VINE. Growth moderately strong with a free constitution ; free -fruiting. 
Leaves small, roundish, deeply toothed. 

FRUIT. Bunches small, and rather loose ; setting indifferently. Berries 
small, round, uneven in size. Skin dark purple, thick. Flesh dark, firm, sweet, 
and pleasant, with a slight Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from the collection of Messrs. Rivers. Not much 

CULTURAL NOTES. An excellent small Grape for cultivation in pots, and 
will ripen against the open wall in favourable seasons. 

SEACLIFFE BLACK. Gros Guillaume. 


SYRIAN (83). An oval white Vinous Grape. Season : late. 
Merits: third-rate. 

SYN. Raisin de Jericho, Raisin de la Palestine, Raisin de la Terre 

YINE. Growth very strong and robust; moderately fruitful. Leaves large, 
downy, deeply lobed and toothed, dying off yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches very lar^e, loose, from eighteen to twenty-four inches or 
more in length, and having very broad loose shoulders ; setting freely. Berries 
large or above medium size, ovate. Skin rather thick, greenish white. Flesh 
firm, moderately juicy, sweet and pleasant when well ripened, but having no 
particular flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. A very old Grape, supposed to be that alluded to in the old 
Testament (Book of Numbers). It is to be found in many old gardens, but very 
seldom planted now. Speedily, of Welbeck, is reported to have grown a bunch 
of this variety which weighed over nineteen pounds, which was the largest bunch 
on record until 1875, when it suffered a double eclipse in Scotland, as noticed in 
our account of the Trebbiano Grape. 



CULTURAL NOTES. "Will succeed under similar treatment to Black Hamburgh, 
but being a strong grower requires ample space, and fruits better in a rather 
shallow border. The better ripened the berries are, the richer and sweeter 
their flavour. 

(Bunch J ^berries natural size.) 



TOTTENHAM PARK MUSCAT. Muscat of Alexandria. 

TREBBIANO (84). Plate XXVI. An oral white Vinous Grape. 
Season : late. Merits : second-rate in quality, but valuable for its 
handsome appearance and late-keeping properties. 

VINE. Growth remarkably strong and robust, the young shoots being very 
thick, almost gross, but ripening freely ; they are generally coated with down 
around the buds, which are large and prominent ; moderately fruitful. Leaves 
large, soft and much covered on the under surface with thick down ; deeply 
toothed, dying off pale yellow. 

FRUIT. Bunches of the very largest size, with broad, strong shoulders, and 
thick stalks, compact, and always well set. Berries medium-sized, roundish- 
ovate, on stout foot-stalks. Skin greenish yellow, changing to pale amber when 
well ripened, tough and thick. Flesh firm, yet juicy, sweet, and pleasant, but 
lacking richness, excepting when very highly ripened. 

HISTORY, ETC. The origin or introduction of this well-known Grape is 
unknown to us. It is largely grown for late work. Some of the finest examples 
we remember to have seen were grown by the late Mr. Drewett, when gardener 
to Mrs. Hope, at The Denbies, Dorking, Surrey ; hence it was by some termed 
the Denbies Trebbiano. Mr. Curror, of Eskbank, exhibited at Edinburgh in 
1875 a bunch of this Grape weighing twenty-six pounds four ounces, which is the 
largest bunch of Grapes on record. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Being of strong growth, this Grape requires considerable 
space to develope properly ; and, although it fruits freely along with Black 
Hamburgh, it well repays treatment similar to Muscats. Mr. Gilbert, of 
Burghley, who is one of the best cultivators of the Trebbiano we know, gives 
plenty of time and plenty of heat to ripen it thoroughly, when the berries keep- 
sound until March and April, and are then very rich. 

TRENTHAM BLACK (5). An oval, black Sweetwater Grape. Season : 
mid-season, or for immediate use after ripening. Merits : in quality 
first-class, but so uncertain as to be scarcely worth growing. 

SYN. Fleming's Prince, Long Noir d'Espagw. 

FRUIT. Growth strong and free, the shoots rather long-jointed; moderately 
fruitful. Leaves large, deep green, with reddish stalks, rugose, very deeply lobed 
and toothed, dying off reddish. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, loose or straggling, broadly shouldered, nearly always 
badly set. Berries large, long ovate, on stout stalks. Skin thin, densely black, 
and covered with a thick, remarkably beautiful bloom. Flesh extremely delicate^ 
juicy, rich and sweet. A Grape of excellent flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. The late Mr. Fleming, of Trentham, was the first to direct 
attention to this Grape. He exhibited it, in the first instance, to the Horticul- 
tural Society as Fleming's Prince t which name was subsequently altered to 
Trentham Black. M. Leroy, of Angers, sent it to the Horticultural Society, 
Chiswick, as Long Noir d'Espagne. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed and ripen very well under the same conditions 
as the Black Hamburgh, but requires great care in setting. The berries are 
also somewhat liable to crack and decay. 

TRIPOLI. Black Hamburgh. 
TROLLINGER. Frankenthal. 


TROVEREN FRONTIGNAN (63). A round, white Muscat Grape. 
Season : mid-season. Merits : first-class in quality, but scarcely worthy 
of cultivation. 

SYN. Muscat Troveren. 

YINE. Growth moderately robust, the wood always ripening well ; fruitful. 
Leaves large, roundish, deeply toothed, somewhat rugose. 

FKUIT. Bunches long, cylindrical, very compact, on rather long, strong 
stalks ; well and closely set. Berries under medium size, round, on stout foot- 
stalks. Skin tough, the major portion of the berries of a clear greenish yellow 
colour, the others of a deep amber, sometimes tinged with red or dirty brown ; 
the flavour of the latter being much richer and sweeter than the pale coloured, 
Flesh firm, crackling, yet juicy and rich, with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Our first acquaintance with this Grape was made in the 
nurseries of Mr. Standish, Ascot. It is of Continental origin, and is grown at 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires a warm house to ripen the fruit thoroughly. 
The more heat that is applied the higher the flavour, and the more unsightly the 
colour. It will fruit fairly well in an ordinary Yinery. 

TYNINGHAME MUSCAT. Muscat of Alexandria. 


VICANE. Bicane. 


WALTHAM CROSS (85). An oval, white Vinous Grape. Season : 
late ; one of the latest Grapes in cultivation. Merits : very large and 
handsome, but quite second-rate in quality. 

YINE. Growth remarkably strong and robust ; moderately fruitful. Leaves 
large, deeply toothed. 

FRUIT. Hunches very large, long and regularly tapering, on strong stalks, evenly 
shouldered, freely set. Berries very large, long ovate, fully larger than those of 
the Muscat of Alexandria, which it greatly resembles when perfectly ripe. Skin 
thick, pale yellow. Flesh firm or hard, sweet, but by no means rich in flavour. 
Handsome in appearance, and keeps well after becoming ripe. 

HISTORY, ETC. A seedling raised by Mr. William Paul, ofWaltham Cross, 
about the year 1870. Received a First Class Certificate from the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Being a late Grape,, it succeeds best in a house suitable 
for Muscats, where sufficient heat can be applied to ripen the fruit thoroughly. 
It is not much cultivated. 

WANTAGE . Lombardy. 

WARNER'S HAMBURGH. Black Hamburgh. 

WEST'S ST. PETER'S (75) Plate XXVII. An oval, black Vinous 
'Grape. Season : late. Merits : first-class as a late variety, second 
only in point of quality to Black Hamburgh ; one of the most refreshing 
of Grapes for invalids. 

SYN. Money's West's St. Peter's, Oldaker's West's St. Peter's, 
Abercairney, Major Moray's. 



VINE. Growth very free, moderately robust, the young shoots firm, and 
always well ripened ; very fruitful. Leaves of moderate size, rugose, deeply 
toothed, with reddish veins and leaf-stalks, sometimes dying off pale yellow, at 
other times highly coloured. 

(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, rather loose, broadly shouldered, on strong 
but very thin wiry foot-stalks ; very freely set. Berries medium-sized, roundish 
ovate. Skin thin, membraneous, very black, and covered with a fine bloom. 
Flesh tender, very juicy, sweet, and at all times remarkably fresh and pleasant. 

HISTORY, ETC. Some thirty years ago this fine old Grape was considered the 
best late variety in cultivation and was extensively planted. At Chatsworth, 
Frogmore, etc., it is still a leading late Grape. A number of spurious varieties at 


one time existed ; hence, to distinguish the true one, it was by some called 
Oldaker's West's St. Peter's, from its having been extensively grown by Mr. 
Oldaker, gardener to Sir Joseph Banks, at Spring Grove, whilst others named it 
Money's "West's St. Peter's. 

CULTURAL NOTES. A somewhat warmer treatment than that required for the 
Black Hamburgh is desirable ; not so much to set the berries as to ripen the 
fruit. It succeeds best in a house by itself, and should be grown so as to have 
the fruit ripe in September ; it will then keep well until March. 

WHITE FRANKENTHAL (30). A round white Sweetwater Grape. 
Season : mid-season ; does not keep well. Merits : third-rate ; greatly 
inferior in every respect to the Black Hamburgh or Frankenthal, of 
which this is a white prototype. 

VINE. Growth somewhat slender, but of good constitution, and ripening 
freely ; moderately fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches below medium size, short, very broadly shouldered, setting 
freely. Berries medium-sized, roundish. Skin thin, clear greenish white, 
almost transparent. Flesh watery, sweet, but not rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. Received from M. Andre Leroy, of Angers, by the Royal 
Horticultural Society ; and has been grown at Chiswick for some years. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed in any ordinary Vinery. 

WHITE FRONTIGNAN (64). Around white Muscat Grape. Season: 
early. Merits : first-class. 

SYN. Muscat Blanc. 

VINE. Growth free, of moderately robust constitution ; very fruitful. Leaves 
deeply serrated. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, long, generally cylindrical ; very closely and 
freely set. Berries small, or below medium size, round. Skin thin, dull greenish 
yellow, often much covered with dull russet. Flesh firm, yet juicy, very sweet, 
rich, and with a strong Muscat flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is one of the fine old varieties of Grapes which are now 
seldom planted, and are becoming neglected, though formerly it was to be found 
in every collection. We have received a variety of this Grape from Hungary, 
named Muscat Quadrat, having the berries of an oblate shape, similar to a flat 
Tomato ; a very interesting variety. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Will succeed well in any Vinery ; when grown in a warm 
house the flavour of the fruit is richer, but it ripens very well in a cool house, or 
in fine seasons on the open wall, 

WHITE LADY DOWNE'S SEEDLING (90). A round, white Vinous 
Grape. Season: late ; one of the very latest of white Grapes. Merits: 
quite third-rate. 

VINE. Growth moderately free ; fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches medium-sized, loose and irregular in shape, some being 
cylindrical, others shouldered ; setting indifferently. Berries medium-sized, 
round. Skin greenish yellow, often much covered with dirty russet, which 
detracts from its appearance. Flesh firm or hard, with a somewhat strong, harsh 

HISTORY, ETC. Raised by Mr. William Thomson, when gardener at Dalkeith, 
from a cross between Lady Downe's Seedling and Muscat of Alexandria. A very 
inferior variety was first sent out under this name, but this being withdrawn, the 
present variety was substituted. 


CULTURAL NOTES. Requires to be grown in a warm house, with considerable 
heat to ripen the berries, to have it in good condition. It is not much cultivated. 

WHITE LISBON (86). An oval, white Vinous Grape. Season : late, 
improves by keeping. Merits : third-rate. 

SYN. White Portugal, White Raisin. 

VINE. Remarkably strong and vigorous in constitution ; very fruitful. 

FRUIT. Bunches large, long, somewhat loose ; setting freely. Berries large, 
ovate. Skin thick, greenish white. Flesh firm, moderately juicy and sweet, but 
with no special character. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is the white Grape sold in grocers' shops during the 
winter. It has been very little grown in this country, but has fruited several 
times at Chiswick. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires treatment similar to the Black Hamburgh to 
ripen its fruit properly. Keeps well after ripening. 

WHITE MUSCADINE. Royal Muscadine. 

WHITE NICE (91). A round white Vinous Grape. Season : late ; 
improves by keeping. Merits : second-rate. 

VINE. Growth remarkably vigorous, producing strong thick wood ; moderately 
fruitful. Leaves very large, deeply toothed, very downy on the under side. 

FRUIT. Bunches very large, loose and straggling, with long, thin shoulders ; 
setting freely. Berries medium- sized, round. Skin thin, membraneous, pale 
greenish white. Flesh moderately firm, juicy, sweet and pleasant to the taste 
when well ripened, but by no means rich. 

HISTORY, ETC. This is a very old Grape, the name appearing in all the old 
lists ; it is, however, not now cultivated to any extent. There is some confusion 
between this White Nice and the Syrian, although they are quite distinct. The 
late Mr. Fowler, of Castle Kennedy, is reported to have exhibited a bunch 
weighing seventeen pounds two ounces ; and Mr. Dickson, of Arkleton, other 
clusters weighing respectively eighteen pounds seven ounces, nineteen pounds five 
ounces, and twenty-five pounds fifteen ounces. 

CULTURAL NOTES. Requires treatment similar to that of the Black Hamburgh, 
but takes longer to ripen. Keeps well. 

WHITE PORTUGAL. White Lisbon. 

WHITE RAISIN. White Lisbon. 

WHITE SWEETWATER. Royal Muscadine. 

WHITE TOKAY (87). Plate XXVIIL An oval white Vinous 
Grape. Season : late. Merits : a first-class late white Grape, very 
worthy of cultivation. 

VINE. Growth remarkably strong and vigorous, with a fine free constitution, 
the young shoots very strong and always ripening well ; very free-fruiting. 
Leaves large, deeply toothed. 

FRUIT. Bunches above medium size, regularly formed, on strong foot-stalks, 
having strong shoulders, compact ; always freely set. Berries large, ovate. 
Skin thick, greenish white, showing the venation, becoming pale amber when 
fully ripe. Flesh firm, yet tender and juicy, with a sweet, pleasant, or some- 
times rich flavour. 




(Bunch ; berries natural size.) 




HISTORY, TCTC. An old Grape, at one time much more extensively grown than 
it is at present, and confused, to some extent, with the Muscat of Alexandria, 
which, in the north, used to be called Charlesworth Tokay. 

CULTURAL NOTES. "Will succeed in any house suitable for the Black Ham- 
burgh, but requires more time to ripen thoroughly. 

WILMOT'S HAMBURGH. Dutch Hamburgh. 
ZANTE. Black Corinth. 



(Weight 4 lb.; J natural size.) 




"^HESE form a class quite distinct from the European Grapes, or 
those ordinarily grown in this country, since they belong to a 
distinct species, Vitis Labrusca, which is a native of North 
America. They seem to be of two types, which are quite 
distinct: 1. The foliage deep green, thicker leathery, very downy 
or pubescent on the under surface. 2. The foliage large, very deeply 
lobed, smooth, pale. The fruit is also distinct, bunches being 
generally small, but very freely produced, and the berries small in 
comparison with the European Grapes. The flesh is generally of a 
greenish colour, and a somewhat mucilaginous texture, having a 
musky perfume, and a peculiar " foxy " sweetish flavour, which is at 
first somewhat objectionable, but the taste is gradually acquired, and 
afterwards relished. 

The American Grapes are nearly all possessed of extraordinary 
vigour of constitution, and are remarkably free in growth. They 
have not been much subject to the ravages of mildew, or even the 
Phylloxera, on which account they have been largely used as stocks 
in French Vineyards on which to graft the European Grapes, so as to 
avoid these pests, and with some success. The Vines are very hardy, 
and ripen fruit freely in the open air in America, where the 
European Grapes cannot be cultivated with success. Their cultivation 
on the open walls in this country is well worthy of a trial. At 
Chiswick they ripen freely in a cold orchard-house. 

The original or older varieties of American Grapes are admittedly 
of inferior quality, but during the last thirty years wonderful progress 
has been made in the raising of new hybrid varieties of large size and 
improved quality, which, in the warm climate of America, are, by good 
judges, considered equal to our Sweetwaters, and even Frontignans. 
Several of the American Grapes have a peculiar habit of what is 
termed " shedding" their fruit when becoming a little over-ripe, i.e., 
the berries, although quite sound, become detached from the stalks 
in the same way as Peaches. 

The following selection of varieties is made from those recommended 
to us by the late Mr. Hovey, and which are growing and have fruited 
in the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens at Chiswick. 



BRIGHTON (92). Plate XXIX. An early black Grape. 
VINE. Growth vigorous and very productive. 

FRUIT. Bunches small. Berries small, reddish black, thick bloom. Flesh 
tender, with a peculiarly sweet flavour. 

HISTORY, ETC. Obtained as a cross between Concord and Diana Hamburgh. 


(Bunch J ; berries natural size.) 

DUCHESS. A white mid-season Grape. 

VINE. Growth vigorous and healthy, very productive and hardy. Leaves 
deeply lobed, not pubescent, and very distinct in character. 

FRUIT. Bunches long, loose. Berries of medium size, white. Skin thin. 
Flesh tender, brisk, sweet, and pleasant. Highly recommended. 

ELDORADO (95). A round yellow Grape. 
YINE. Growth moderately vigorous. 

FRUIT. Bunch small, badly set, stamens deflexed. Berries small, round, 
deep yellow, having a strong musky flavour ; pleasant. 

GOLDEN POCKLINGTON (96). A round white Grape. 
VINE. Growth very vigorous and fruitful. 

H. M. POLLETT & Co., 





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